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2017
Ogunriade, SO, Ajala SO, Oyebo YT, Jaiyeola TG.  2017.  A Class of Distributive Quasigroup and Its Parastrophs. Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics. 39:1-8.
Adegoke, OJ, Aluko BT, Adegoke BF.  2017.  Determinants of Market Value of Residential Properties in Ibadan Metropolis, Nigeria. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development. 8(4):178-188.
Waitt, C, Diliiy Penchala S, Olagunju A, Amara A, Else L, Lamorde M, Khoo S.  2017.  Development, validation and clinical application of a method for the simultaneous quantification of lamivudine, emtricitabine and tenofovir in dried blood and dried breast milk spots using LC–MS/MS. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 1060:300-307. AbstractDownload (Open Access)

Objectives: To present the validation and clinical application of a LC–MS/MS method for the quantification of lamivudine (3TC), emtricitabine (FTC) and tenofovir (TFV) in dried blood spots (DBS) and dried breast milk spots (DBMS).

Methods: DBS and DBMS were prepared from 50 and 30 μL of drug-spiked whole blood and human breast milk, respectively. Following extraction with acetonitrile and water, chromatographic separation utilised a Synergi polar column with a gradient mobile phase program consisting of 0.1% formic acid in water and 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile. Detection and quantification was performed using a TSQ Quantum Ultra triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The analytical method was used to evaluate NRTI drug levels in HIV-positive nursing mothers-infant pairs.

Results: The assay was validated over the concentration range of 16.6–5000 ng/mL for 3TC, FTC and TFV in DBS and DBMS except for TFV in DBMS where linearity was established from 4.2–1250 ng/mL. Intra and inter-day precision (%CV) ranged from 3.5–8.7 and accuracy was within 15% for all analytes in both matrices. The mean recovery in DBS was >61% and in DBMS >43% for all three analytes. Matrix effect was insignificant. Median AUC0-8 values in maternal DBS and DBMS, respectively, were 4683 (4165–6057) and 6050 (5217–6417) ng h/mL for 3TC, 3312 (2259–4312) and 4853 (4124–6691) ng h/mL for FTC and 1559 (930–1915) and 56 (45–80) ng h/mL for TFV. 3TC and FTC were quantifiable (>16.6 ng/mL) in DBS from 2/6 and 1/6 infants respectively whereas TFV was undetectable in all infants.

Conclusions: DBS and DBMS sampling for bioanalysis of 3TC, FTC and TFV is straightforward, robust, accurate and precise, and ideal for use in low-resource settings.

Neary, M, Lamorde M, Olagunju A, Darin KM, Merry C, Byakika-Kibwika P, Back DJ, Siccardi M, Owen A, Scarsi KK.  2017.  The Effect of Gene Variants on Levonorgestrel Pharmacokinetics when Combined with Antiretroviral Therapy containing Efavirenz or Nevirapine. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics . (DOI: 10.1002/cpt.667) AbstractJournal Website

Reduced levonorgestrel concentrations from the levonorgestrel contraceptive implant was previously seen when given concomitantly with efavirenz. We sought to assess whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involved in efavirenz and nevirapine metabolism were linked to these changes in levonorgestrel concentration. SNPs in CYP2B6, CYP2A6, NR1I2 and NR1I3 were analysed. Associations of participant demographics and genotype with levonorgestrel pharmacokinetics were evaluated in HIV-positive women using the levonorgestrel implant plus efavirenz- or nevirapine-based ART, in comparison to ART-naïve women using multivariate linear regression. Efavirenz group: CYP2B6 516G>T was associated with lower levonorgestrel log10 Cmax and log10 AUC. CYP2B6 15582C>T was associated with lower log10 AUC. Nevirapine group: CYP2B6 516G>T was associated with higher log10 Cmax and lower log10 Cmin . Pharmacogenetic variations influenced subdermal levonorgestrel pharmacokinetics in HIV-positive women, indicating that the magnitude of the interaction with non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) is influenced by host genetics.

Olagunju, A, Schipani A, Bolaji O, Khoo S, Owen A.  2017.  Evaluation of universal versus genotype-guided efavirenz dose reduction in pregnant women using population pharmacokinetic modelling. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. AbstractWebsite

Objectives: Lack of data on the pharmacokinetics of efavirenz in pregnant women at the 400 mg reduced dose currently prevents universal roll-out. Population pharmacokinetic modelling was used to explore pharmacokinetic endpoints at 200, 400 and 600 mg daily doses in pregnant women stratified by CYP2B6 metabolic status.

Methods: The analysis was based on 252 plasma efavirenz concentrations from 77 pregnant women (77 sparse, 175 intensive) who received antiretroviral regimens containing 600 mg of efavirenz. The model was developed using NONMEM®. The effect of genetics was investigated and concentration–time courses at steady-state were simulated for individuals (n = 1000 each) classified as CYP2B6 slow, intermediate and fast metabolizers at 200, 400 and 600 mg daily doses.

Results: At a 400 mg reduced dose, predicted mean (90% CI) mid-dose efavirenz concentration (C12) was 2.24 μg/mL (0.89–4.18) in pregnant women classified as slow metabolizers, compared with 0.87 μg/mL (0.34–1.64) in intermediate metabolizers and 0.78 μg/mL (0.30–1.47) in fast metabolizers. C12 was below the 0.47 μg/mL threshold determined within the ENCORE 1 trial in 10% at 400 mg, 4.6% at 600 mg and 3.4% with genotype-guided dosing. The 4.0 μg/mL toxicity threshold was exceeded in 4.6% at 400 mg, 13.5% at 600 mg and 5.2% with genotype-guided dosing.

Conclusions: These data provide context for the ongoing debate about reduction in efavirenz dose to 400 mg during pregnancy and should be interpreted alongside the lower toxicity expected with the lower dose. Additional research is required to investigate genotype-guided dose reduction in pregnant women.

Awoyemi, MO, Hammed OS, Falade SC, Arogundade AB, Olayode FA, Olurin OT, Ajama OD, Onyedim GC.  2017.  EVIDENCE OF BASEMENT CONTROLLED FAULTING OF CRETACEOUS STRATA IN THE MIDDLE BENUE TROUGH, NIGERIA FROM LINEAMENT ANALYSIS OF GRAVITY DATA.. Ife Journal of Science. 19(1):69-83.
Odeyemi, TI, Obiyan SA.  2017.  Exploring the subsidiarity principle in policing and the operations of the Nigeria Police Force. African Security Review. :1-19.: Routledge AbstractWebsite

ABSTRACTThe provisions of the 1999 Constitution, which recognises the existence of a single police force and forbids parallel police organisations, have oftentimes generated controversies among actors in the Nigerian federal polity. Rising insecurity precipitates lingering questions on the utility and adequacy of a single, highly centralised and centrally controlled police force given Nigeria’s geographic vastness and demographic diversity. Conversely, arguments have also dwelt on the dangers of fragmentation considering Nigeria’s psychosocial, economic and political nature. This article attempts to balance these arguments by analysing policing and the operations of the Nigeria Police Force (NPF) through the lens of the subsidiarity principle. Subsidiarity is a governance principle in federations, captured in the founding documents of the European Union (EU), which prescribes that governmental powers, authorities and duties should be held by the tier that can best perform them equitably, efficiently, effectively, suitably and based on interest and need. Drawing largely on interviews with purposively selected police scholars, political actors, civil society organisations and police personnel, the paper contends that this principle offers a pragmatic solution to the perennial problems of intergovernmental frictions on the use of the police within the context of governance in the Nigerian federation.

Jaiyeola, TG, adeniregun AA, Asiru MA.  2017.  Finite FRUTE loops. Journal of Algebra and Its Applications. 16(2):1750040,10pp.
OBOKOH Lawrence, OJIAKO Udechukwu, MONDAYJEHIOBUCHEC.  2017.  Impact of Exchange Rate Depreciation on Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises' Performance and Development in Nigeria. African Journal of Business and Economic Research,. Vol. 12(1):11-48.
Fagbadebo, O, Agunyai SC, Odeyemi TI.  2017.  Intra-party crisis and the prospects of democratic stability in Nigeria’s Fourth Republic: Insights from the Peoples Democratic Party (PDP). In A. Amtaika (Ed.), The Democratization of Africa: Dynamics and Trends. , Austin, Texas : Pan-African University Press
FASHAE, OA, AYOMANOR R, Orimoogunje OOI.  2017.  LAND USE DYNAMICS AND SURFACE WATER QUALITY IN A TYPICAL URBAN CENTRE OF SOUTH-WESTERN, NIGERIA. Analele Universităţii din Oradea, Seria Geografie. 27(1):98-107.10.auog_724_adeola.pdf
Adekanmbi, OH, Alebiosu OS.  2017.  PALAEOECOLOGICAL STUDIES OF QUATERNARY SEDIMENTS FROM THE UNIVERSITY OF LAGOS, NIGERIA. Ife Journal of Science. 19(1):169-181.adekamnbi_and_alebiosu_17.pdf
C.T, S, T.R. F, P.I. A.  2017.  PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANALGESIC EVALUATION OF METHANOL LEAF EXTRACT OF Clerodendrum volubile Linn.. Ife Journal of Science. 19(1):141-145.senjobi_et_al_14.pdf
Towolawi, AT, Arowolo TA, Bada BS, Badejo AA, T aiwo AM.  2017.  PHYTOEXTRACTION ASSESSMENT OF GREEN AMARANTH (Amaranthus viridis Linn.) GROWN ON SOIL AMENDED WITH SEWAGE SLUDGE. Ife Journal of Science. 19(1):133-140.towolawi_et_al_13.pdf
MONDAY James, TOBI Aladeraji.  2017.  Promoting Public Sector Accountability in Nigeria: The Role of Internal Audit Function (IAF). ICAN Journal of Accounting & Finance,. 2(1):247-264.
Izevbekhai, O, Adeagbo B, Olagunju A, Bolaji O.  2017.  Quality of artemisinin-based antimalarial drugs marketed in Nigeria. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 111(2):90-96. AbstractJournal Website

Background: Artemisinin combination therapy is first-line therapy for treatment of malaria, which is one of the most significant public health problems in Nigeria. With the increasing level of use of these drugs coupled with the emergence of resistance, there is a need for regular post-market surveillance.

Method: Twenty different brands of artesunate-containing antimalarial drugs and 10 brands of artemether-lumefantrine were multi-sourced in the south western part of Nigeria and were subjected to identification, weight uniformity test, and assay using United State pharmacopoeia and International Pharmacopoeia monographs. In vitro-dissolution test of the artemether tablets was also investigated.

Results: All 10 brands (100%) of the artemether-lumefantrine tablets met the assay requirement for artemether and 8 (80%) met the assay requirement for lumefantrine, but only 4 brands (40%) met the requirement for artemether dissolution. One of these brands failed the weight uniformity test. Of the 20 brands of artesunate-containing brands included in this study, 15 (75%) met the standard assay requirement for artesunate and two failed the weight uniformity test.

Conclusions: There is evidence of the presence of substandard artemisinin products in the Nigerian market.

AGORZIE Claudius, MONDAY James, ADEREMIH.  2017.  Supply Chain Risk Factors' Assessment in the Nigerian Pharmaceutical Industry. European Journal of Business and Management,. Vol. 9(17):130-138.