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Famurewa, BA, Oginni FO, Adewara BA, Fomete B, Aniagor C, Aluko-Olokun B, Morgan RE, Amedari MKI.  2021.  Epidemiology of Blindness From Facial Trauma: A Multi-Centre Nigerian Study, dec. Craniomaxillofacial Trauma {&} Reconstruction. :194338752110609.: {SAGE} Publications AbstractWebsite
Talabi, A, Sowande O, Mosaku K, Owojuyigbe A, Amosu L, Adejuyigbe O.  2021.  Effect of parental presence on anxiety during induction of anaesthesia in children undergoing elective day case surgery, 2021/12/01. 17 Abstract

BackgroundSurgical operation and anaesthesia induction are fearful events which may interfere with the smooth conduct of anaesthesia and postoperative recovery in children. Indeed, the fear of needles, syringes and unknown hospital environment often compound their anxiety. Various modalities such as use of clowns, music, low intensity light in the induction room, pharmacological agents and parental presence during induction of anaesthesia have been utilized with the aim of gaining the cooperation of the children during induction. However, their use has yielded conflicting results. This prospective study was conducted among children whose ages were between 2 and 15 years. They were randomized into parental presence and parental absence (un-accompanied) or control groups. The anxiety levels of children and parents in both groups were compared at baseline, separation and during induction of anaesthesia.
The ages of the children ranged between 2 and 15 years with a mean age of 6.78 ± 2.50 years. The mean age of patients in the parental presence at induction (PPIA) was 7.14 ± 3.68 years while in the control group was 6.42 ± 3.31 years. The difference was not statistically significant, p < 0.05. The mean anxiety score of patients in the PPIA at reception, separation and induction of anaesthesia were 26.6 ± 9.2, 38.4 ± 18.3 and 54.1 ± 22.8 compared to 27.3 ± 8.04, 41.4 ± 21.7 and 58.6 ± 23.1 in the control group respectively, p < 0.05. The mean anxiety score of parents in the PPIA at reception, separation and induction of anaesthesia were 52.2 ± 6.7, 51.7 ± 7.8 and 51.9 ± 7.9 compared to 53.0 ± 6.5, 52.4 ± 6.2 and 52.9 ± 7.9 in the control group respectively, p < 0.05. Among the cohort of preschool age group, children in the control group were more anxious at induction compared to the PPIA group, p = 0.01. As the age increases, the anxiety state of the children decreases, t = − 0.398, p < 0.001. The mean score of parental satisfaction in the PPIA and the control groups were comparable, 8.1 ± 7.1 vs 7.3 ± 1.1 respectively, p = 0.395.
The presence of parents during induction of anaesthesia did not influence the anxiety states of children in our study. Anxiety at induction tends to reduce as the age of patients increases.

Adewinbi, S, Busari R, Animasahun LO, OMOTOSO E, Taleatu B.  2021.  Effective pseudocapacitive performance of binder free transparent α-V2O5 thin film electrode: Electrochemical and some surface probing, 2021/11/01. 621:413260. Abstract

Vanadium oxide nanomaterial was successfully prepared on conductive substrate via a simple and facile chemical route with no binder or additive. The film was characterized to investigate its microstructural, optical, electrical and electrochemical properties. The SEM micrographs of the annealed film presented enabling environment that is required for effective photocatalysis. It also demonstrated enhanced interaction between the film and the substrate and adequate pore size distribution that can allow free electrolytic ion intercalation/deintercalation for efficient supercapacitive response. EDX confirmed the elemental composition of the film. XRD and Raman spectroscopy showed substantial characteristic peaks that are attributes of orthorhombic crystal structure of V2O5 powder. Optical studies showed that the film exhibited high visible light transmittance and its energy band gap was found to be 2.77 eV. Pseudocapacitive performance of the V2O5 electrode was investigated via a three-electrode cell configuration. The film electrode exhibited highest areal capacity of 1.18 μAh cm⁻², energy density of 0.485 μWhcm⁻² at a power density of 107.71 μWcm⁻² and current density 0.25 mAcm⁻², moderate charge transfer resistance and superior cycling stability. The study demonstrated the viability of V2O5 film as electrode material for the development of high-performance supercapacitors.


This paper evaluated the use and application of probability analysis in the assessment of construction risk. It has been a usual practice to estimate a single-price value for the cost of a project and a certain percentage allowance to cater for risk. A more realistic approach is to adopt the policy that the single point forecast is the most likely price with a range between the lowest price and the highest price. To demonstrate this, a typical project was used as a case study. The contract sum together with its breakdown into respective trade variables were collected. The data collected were analysed using probability analysis. The analysis and result presented provides guide in arriving at this range of values. It is concluded that the successful application of this technique into the estimation of construction project's cost will help in the management of construction risk. Introduction All human endeavours involve risk. The success or failure of any venture depends on how we deal with it. Construction industry is not an exception. This industry has had poor reputation for coping with risk with many projects failing to meet deadlines and cost targets. The participants, public and others have suffered as a result (Thompson et ai, 1992). Sources of risk can be in terms of payment, security deposit and retention, time of commencement and completion, variation, delay and cost of delay and liquidated damages. Size can be one of the major causes of risk; so. can changes in political or commercial planning. Other factors carrying risk with them include the complexity of the project, location, speed of construction and familiarity with the type of procurement system. These risks need to be properly assessed, analysed and managed for efficient operation of the industry. Norris et at (1992) and Thompson et at (1992) identified the most useful and main techniques of risk analysis tc be sensitivity and probability analyses. Chapman (1990), rated probability analysis over sensitivity analysis in that the former overcomes many of the limitations of the latter by specifying a probability distribution for each risk and then considering the effect of the risks in combination. This paper describes the concepts of probability analysis and its application in the management of construction risk. This is Illustrated by a case study.

Michael, O, Pitondo-Silva A, Silva L, Santos Ré A, Marcato P, Massaro T, Polizello A, Aires C.  2021.  Effect of Chitosan-Coated Nanostructured Lipid Carrier on Escherichia coli Biofilms, 2021/09/01. 11:1-8. Abstract

Antimicrobial delivery systems are useful tools to control biofilm growth on abiotic surfaces such as urinary catheter. The present study examined whether nanostructured lipid carriers coated with chitosan (NLC-chitosan) affected the growth of uropathogenic biofilms of Escherichia coli. NLC-chitosan was prepared using the emulsion and sonication method, and further characterized with respect to particle size, polydispersity index, and zeta potential. After determining the minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations, E. coli biofilms were grown on catheter specimens (following a preliminary study in which E. coli was found to adhere better to the catheter surface than glass slide and plate). At the 48, 72, 96, and 120 h of growth, they were exposed to 0.9% NaCl solution (negative control), 0.12% chlorhexidine solution (positive control), or NLC-chitosan (final chitosan concentration of 0.28%). After 24 h of treatment, the biofilms were collected to analyze their bacterial viability. NLC-chitosan preparation had bimodal particle size distribution with mean size of 292.9 ± 2.5 nm and polydispersity index of 0.24 ± 0.03 and positive zeta potential (+19.1 ± 0.2) indicating the nanoparticle coating by chitosan. Compared with the control groups, NLC-chitosan affected bacterial viability of biofilms at all ages studied (p<0.05). NLC-chitosan can effectively control the growth of young and mature biofilms of uropathogenic E. coli.

Folayan, M, Oginni A, El Tantawi M, Finlayson T, Adeniyi A.  2021.  Epidemiological profile of early childhood caries in a sub-urban population in Nigeria, 2021/08/23. 21 Abstract
Ameye, S, Ikoko M, Awoleye M, Eziyi J.  2021.  Evaluation of the performance of machine learning algorithms applied to voice parameters in prioritizing candidate for office laryngoscopy: Automated triaging in focus, 2021/07/30. 11:169-175. Abstract

Background: We examined the performance of different Machine Learning Algorithms while also comparing two methods of voice assessment to look at the workability of automating triage of patient that will need prompt office laryngoscopy. Methods: We recruited consecutive adult subjects excluding those with a history of being regular singers or choristers in the past one year and those with the previous history of laryngeal trauma. We then carried out the perceptual voice assessments on the GRBAS Scale and also obtained the basic acoustic parameters of the voice samples. Laryngeal examinations with 70-degree Hopkins’ Rod were then carried out by another examiner for all the participants to identify gross laryngeal changes or lesions. We then evaluated each machine learning algorithm comparing the perceptual and acoustic parameters in determining how well each algorithm predicts the presence of those categorized with having lesion or not by the laryngeal examination. Results: One hundred and twenty respondents were analyzed out of which 89(74.2%) were females. The mean age was 46.5 ± 9.2 years. The perceptual evaluation generally outperformed the acoustic evaluation. Also, the Naïve Bayes Classifier (NBC) outperformed other algorithms with a F1 score of 0.55 followed by Artificial Neural Network (ANN) with the score of 0.53. However, the ANN outperformed the other with regards to the Area-under-the-curve (AUC). Conclusion: When these metrics are taken together, the ANN still remains the best algorithm for this dataset. We are however cognisance of the needed improvement to the various aspects of this work including a larger dataset more scientific sampling.

Folayan, M, Obiyan M, El Tantawi M, Kemoli A, Al-Batayneh O, Gaffar B, Schroth R.  2021.  An ecological study on the association between early childhood caries and intimate partner violence in 20 low- and middle-income countries: 2007-2017, 2021/07/26. 4:39. Abstract
Faniyi, I, Olofinjana B, Fasakin O, Ajenifuja E, Alo F, Eleruja M, Ajayi E.  2021.  Effects of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide on thermal and mechanical properties of expanded polystyrene-based composites, 2021/06/01. 44 Abstract

Graphene oxide (GO) acts as an insulator but when reduced to reduced graphene oxide (RGO), it has high heat storage capacity. This can result in lowering the phase change temperature when embedded in a material such as expanded polystyrene (EPS), thus making it a good heat-resistance material. In this study, the thermal and the mechanical effects of GO and RGOs over EPS were analysed. GO was synthesized using modified Hummer’s method, while the reduction process was taken through different routes using three different reductants: hydrazine (RGO-HZ), ascorbic acid (RGO-AA) and the extract of Amaranthus hybridus (RGO-AH). The same content of graphite and its derivatives were separately and chemically bonded together with EPS forming composites (i.e., graphite composite, GO composite, RGO-HZ composite, RGO-AA composite and RGO-AH composite) and cast on a mould at room temperature to form a dog-bone shape. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential thermal analysis, scanning electron microscopy and mechanical tests were conducted on ordinary EPS and on each of the composite samples. The results showed a significant enhancement of thermal and mechanical properties of the composites over ordinary EPS.

Oyedotun, K, Mirghni A, Fasakin O, Tarimo D, Mahmoud B, Manyala N.  2021.  Effect of growth-time on electrochemical performance of birnessite manganese oxide (δ-MnO2) as electrodes for supercapacitors: An insight into neutral aqueous electrolytes, 2021/04/01. 36:102419. Abstract

This study demonstrates successful synthesis of nanoflower-like birnessite δ-MnO2 materials through a simple and effective hydrothermal technique. Characterization of the flower-like materials grown at various dwell times were carried out by employing scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and Barrett–Joyner–Halenda (BJH) models, and electrochemical analysis to understand the effect of different growth time on their morphological, structural, surface area along with pore size distribution and electrochemical characteristics as electrodes for electrochemical capacitors. Attention is mainly based on electrochemical assessment of the as-synthesized materials with an insight into some neutral aqueous electrolytes, mainly lithium sulphate (1 M Li2SO4) and sodium sulphate (1 M Na2SO4) solutions as potential medium owing to their non-corrosive nature, cost-effectiveness, electrochemical stability and environmentally friendliness. Significant charge propagation, with a high specific capacitance of 387.1 F g⁻¹ was achieved for the half-cell electrode in 1 M Li2SO4 alongside excellent cycling stability for up to 5 000 cycles performed at 3 A g⁻¹ specific current. A comprehensive electrochemical assessment is performed to understanding the relationship between solvated and diffused ions of the neutral electrolytes that could result in fast charge storage kinetics as well as high specific capacitance.

Olagunju, A, Adeola F, Olagunoye A, Ojo T, Adefuye B, Fagbamigbe A, Adebiyi A, Olagunju O, Ladipo O, Akinloye A, Adeagbo B, Onayade A, Bolaji O, Happi C, Rannard S, Owen A.  2021.  Efficacy and safety of nitazoxanide plus atazanavir/ritonavir for the treatment of moderate to severe COVID-19 (NACOVID): A structured summary of a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial, 12. Trials. 22 Abstract
Lyra Jr, H, Collaborative G, Nepogodiev D, Simoes J, Li E, Picciochi M, Glasbey J, Baiocchi G, Blanco-Colino R, Chaudhry D, Alameer E, Elsanhoury K, Funmi W, Ghosh D, Gujjuri R, Harrison E, Lule H, Kaafarani H, Nabian MH, Egbuchulem I.  2021.  Effects of pre-operative isolation on postoperative pulmonary complications after elective surgery: an international prospective cohort study, 08. Anaesthesia. Abstract
Musa, N, Ojo G, Oladele F.  2021.  Evaluation of Methods Adopted for Training Students in the Use of Quantity Surveying Software Packages in Tertiary Institutions in Nigeria, 05. LAUTECH Journal of Civil and Environmental Studies. 6 Abstract
Article, R, Olukemi B-T, Ojo O, Ao J, Uvie O, Babajide A, Eyekpegha O, Oguns A.  2021.  Evaluation of the Impact of COVID-19 Pandemic on Delivery of Paediatric Cardiac Services in Nigeria, 05. Cardiology & Vascular Research. 5:1-5. Abstract