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W.A. Muse, A.A. Ajayi, KOSO & AY.  2019.  Morphological Characters and Proximate Composition of Crab, Callinectes amnicola from Tropical Marine Environment. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INNOVATIVE RESEARCH & DEVELOPMENT. 8(1):126-136.: www.ijird.com Abstract
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W.B, Odetoyin, AIKAORT.  2008.  Asymptomatic bacteriuria in patients with diabetes mellitus in Ile-Ife, South-West, Nigeria.. East Africa Medical Journal Kenya. 85:18–23.: Kenya Medical Association Abstract
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WA, O.  2003.  Renal failure in N igeria children:factors limiting access to dialysis. Pediatric Nephrology. vol. 18(12):1249-1254.
WA, O, O.Adefehinti, Adelusola KA.  2010.  Childhood idiopathic steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome in southwestern Nigeria. Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation. vol. 21(5):979-990..
Wada, OZ, Oloruntoba EO, Adejumo M, Aluko OO.  2020.  {Classification of Sanitation Services and Students' Sanitation Practices among Schools in Lagos, Nigeria}, sep. Environment and Natural Resources Research. 10:55–68., Number 3 AbstractWebsite

The paucity of information on the number of accessible sanitation facilities in secondary schools in developing countries has hindered efforts in attaining sustainable development in this area. Therefore, this study was designed to bridge that gap. The cross-sectional study utilized a 4-stage sampling technique to select 386 students from schools in Badagry, Lagos. Pre-tested questionnaire and observational checklists were used to obtain data. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression at 5% level of significance. Respondents’ mean age was 15.8±1.5 years and 55.2% were female. On-site observation revealed that all the schools had improved sanitation facilities, while 37% of the available toilet compartments were inaccessible to the students. Majority (85%) of the facilities provided limited service, while 15% provided basic service. The student to toilet ratio for the public school girls and boys were 3191:1 and 642:1 respectively, while the private school had a ratio of 257:1 and 289:1 for girls and boys respectively. Some of the sanitation practices observed in the schools were open defecation (35.4%), toilet avoidance (21%), and prolonged urine and feacal retention (57.4%). Students from the public school were about 3 times more likely to practice open defecation (OR=2.87; CI=1.160-7.095). Also, male students were more likely to practice open defecation (OR=1.72; CI=1.125-2.615). All the schools did not meet the school sanitation standard of 1 toilet to 30 boys/girls set by the Federal Government of Nigeria. Sustainable sanitation-interventions and maintenance schemes are required to safeguard the health of the students and the community at large.

Wahab, AB.  2017.  Perception of Building Occupants on the use of Generating Sets, 02. European Scientific Journal. 13 Abstract
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Waitt, C, Diliiy Penchala S, Olagunju A, Amara A, Else L, Lamorde M, Khoo S.  2017.  Development, validation and clinical application of a method for the simultaneous quantification of lamivudine, emtricitabine and tenofovir in dried blood and dried breast milk spots using LC–MS/MS. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci. 1060:300-307. AbstractDownload (Open Access)

Objectives: To present the validation and clinical application of a LC–MS/MS method for the quantification of lamivudine (3TC), emtricitabine (FTC) and tenofovir (TFV) in dried blood spots (DBS) and dried breast milk spots (DBMS).

Methods: DBS and DBMS were prepared from 50 and 30 μL of drug-spiked whole blood and human breast milk, respectively. Following extraction with acetonitrile and water, chromatographic separation utilised a Synergi polar column with a gradient mobile phase program consisting of 0.1% formic acid in water and 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile. Detection and quantification was performed using a TSQ Quantum Ultra triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The analytical method was used to evaluate NRTI drug levels in HIV-positive nursing mothers-infant pairs.

Results: The assay was validated over the concentration range of 16.6–5000 ng/mL for 3TC, FTC and TFV in DBS and DBMS except for TFV in DBMS where linearity was established from 4.2–1250 ng/mL. Intra and inter-day precision (%CV) ranged from 3.5–8.7 and accuracy was within 15% for all analytes in both matrices. The mean recovery in DBS was >61% and in DBMS >43% for all three analytes. Matrix effect was insignificant. Median AUC0-8 values in maternal DBS and DBMS, respectively, were 4683 (4165–6057) and 6050 (5217–6417) ng h/mL for 3TC, 3312 (2259–4312) and 4853 (4124–6691) ng h/mL for FTC and 1559 (930–1915) and 56 (45–80) ng h/mL for TFV. 3TC and FTC were quantifiable (>16.6 ng/mL) in DBS from 2/6 and 1/6 infants respectively whereas TFV was undetectable in all infants.

Conclusions: DBS and DBMS sampling for bioanalysis of 3TC, FTC and TFV is straightforward, robust, accurate and precise, and ideal for use in low-resource settings.

Waitt, C, Olagunju A, Nakalema S, Kyohaire I, Owen A, Lamorde M, Khoo S.  2018.  Plasma and breast milk pharmacokinetics of emtricitabine, tenofovir and lamivudine using dried blood and breast milk spots in nursing African mother–infant pairs. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. AbstractDownload (Open Access)

Background: Breast milk transfer of first-line ART from mother to infant is not fully understood.

Objectives: To determine the concentrations of lamivudine, emtricitabine and tenofovir in maternal blood, breast milk and infant blood from breastfeeding mother–infant pairs.

Methods: Intensive pharmacokinetic sampling of maternal dried blood spots (DBS), dried breast milk spots (DBMS) and infant DBS from 30 Ugandan and 29 Nigerian mothers receiving first-line ART and their infants was conducted. DBS and DBMS were collected pre-dose and at 5–6 timepoints up to 12 h following observed dosing. Infant DBS were sampled twice during this period. Lamivudine, emtricitabine and tenofovir were quantified using LC-MS/MS, with non-compartmental analysis to calculate key pharmacokinetic parameters.

Results: Peak concentrations in breast milk from women taking lamivudine and emtricitabine occurred later than in plasma (4–8 h compared with 2 h for lamivudine and 2–4 h for emtricitabine). Consequently, the milk-to-plasma (M:P) ratio of lamivudine taken once daily was 0.95 (0.82–1.15) for AUC0–12, whereas for AUC12–20 this was 3.04 (2.87–4.16). Lamivudine was detectable in 36% (14/39) of infants [median 17.7 (16.3–22.7) ng/mL]. For 200 mg of emtricitabine once daily, the median M:P ratio was 3.01 (2.06–3.38). Three infants (19%) had measurable emtricitabine [median 18.5 (17.6–20.8) ng/mL]. For 300 mg of tenofovir once daily, the median M:P ratio was 0.015 (0–0.03) and no infant had measurable tenofovir concentrations.

Conclusions: Emtricitabine and lamivudine accumulate in breast milk and were detected in breastfeeding infants. In contrast, tenofovir penetrates the breast milk to a small degree, but is undetectable in breastfeeding infants.

Wang, H, Abbas K, Abbasifard M, Abbasi-Kangevari M, Abbastabar H, Abd-Allah F, Abdelalim A, Abolhassani H, Guimarães Abreu L, Abrigo M, Abushouk A, Adabi M, Adair T, Adebayo O, Isaac A, Adekanmbi V, Adeoye A, Adetokunboh O, Advani S.  2020.  Global age-sex-specific fertility,mortality,healthy life expectancy (HALE) and population estimates in 204 countries and territories 1950-2019: a comprehensive demographic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2019, 2020/10/17. 396:1160-1203. Abstract
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Waschke, O, Fehse B, Kabisch H, Zander AR, Fehse N, Renges H, Kroger N, Zabelina T, Ayuk F, Schieder H, Oyekunle AA.  2006.  Allogeneic stem-cell transplantation in patients with refractory acute leukemia: a long-term follow-up, Jan. Bone Marrow Transplant. 37:45-50., Number 1 AbstractWebsite

We examined retrospectively 44 patients with refractory acute leukemia (acute myeloid leukemia (AML)/acute lymphoblastic leukemia=25/19) who underwent allogeneic transplantation at our center between 11/1990 and 04/2004. The median leukemic blasts was 25% and age 28 years (range, 3-56). Twenty-one patients had untreated relapse, 13 failed reinduction, eight in partial remission and two aplastic. Conditioning was myeloablative using cyclophosphamide, busulfan, total-body irradiation and etoposide (Bu/Cy/VP, n=22; TBI/Cy/VP, n=17; others, n=5) followed by marrow or peripheral blood transplant (n=23/21) from unrelated or related donors (n=28/16). All patients had graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis with cyclosporin and methotrexate. One patient experienced late graft failure. Severe acute-GVHD and chronic-GVHD appeared in eight and 14 patients, respectively. Thirteen patients (30%) remain alive after a median of 25.3 months (range, 2.4-134.1); with 31 deaths, mostly from relapse (n=15) and infections (n=12). Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) at 5 years was 28 and 26%, respectively. OS and PFS were significantly better with blasts < or =20% and time to transplant < or =1 year while transplant-related mortality was less with the use of TBI. We conclude that patients with refractory leukemia can benefit from allogeneic BMT, especially with < or =20% marrow blast.

Watila, MM, Balarabe SA, Komolafe M, Igwe SC, Bimbo Fawale M, van Diessen E, Nyandaiti YW, Singh G, Winkler AS, Sander JW.  2021.  Translation and validation of an epilepsy-screening questionnaire in three Nigerian languages, 2021. Epilepsy and Behavior. 114 Abstract

Objective: We describe the development, translation and validation of epilepsy-screening questionnaires in the three most popular Nigerian languages: Hausa, Igbo and Yoruba. Methods: A 9-item epilepsy-screening questionnaire was developed by modifying previously validated English language questionnaires. Separate multilingual experts forward- and back-translated them to the three target languages. Translations were discussed with fieldworkers and community members for ethnolinguistic acceptability and comprehension. We used an unmatched affected-case versus unaffected-control design for the pilot study. Cases were people with epilepsy attending the tertiary hospitals where these languages are spoken. The controls were relatives of cases or people attending for other medical conditions. An affirmative response to any of the nine questions amounted to a positive screen for epilepsy. Results: We recruited 153 (75 cases and 78 controls) people for the Hausa version, 106 (45 cases and 61 controls) for Igbo and 153 (66 cases and 87 controls) for the Yoruba. The sensitivity and specificity of the questionnaire were: Hausa (97.3% and 88.5%), Igbo (91.1% and 88.5%) and Yoruba (93.9% and 86.7%). The three versions reliably indicated epilepsy with positive predictive values of 85.9% (Hausa), 85.4% (Igbo) and 87.3% (Yoruba) and reliably excluded epilepsy with negative predictive values of 97.1% (Hausa), 93.1% (Igbo) and 95.1% (Yoruba). Positive likelihood ratios were all greater than one. Conclusions: Validated epilepsy screening questionnaires are now available for the three languages to be used for community-based epilepsy survey in Nigeria. The translation and validation process are discussed to facilitate usage and development for other languages in sub-Saharan Africa.

Wei, X, Hu Y, Peng P, Zhu Z, Atere CT, O’Donnell AG, Wu J, Ge T.  2017.  Effect of P stoichiometry on the abundance of nitrogen-cycle genes in phosphorus-limited paddy soil. Biology and Fertility of Soils . 53:767–776..
Weirauch, C, Berenger J –M, Berniker L, Forero D, Forthman M, Frankenberg S, Freedman A, Gordon E, Hoey-Chamberlain R, Hwang WS, Marshall SA, Michael A, Paiero SM, Udah O, Watson C, Yeo M, Zhang G, Zhang J.  2014.  An illustrated identification key to assassin bug subfamilies and tribes (Hemiptera: Reduviidae). Canadian Journal of Arthropod Identification, Canada. No. 26(doi:10.3752/cjai.2014.26)
Wiens, K, Lindstedt P, Blacker B, Johnson K, Baumann M, Schaeffer L, Abbastabar H, Abd-Allah F, Abdelalim A, Abdollahpour I, Abegaz K, Abejie A, Guimarães Abreu L, Abrigo M, Abualhasan A, Accrombessi M, Acharya D, Adabi M, Adamu A.  2020.  Mapping geographic inequalities in oral rehydration therapy coverage in low-income and middle-income countries, 2000-17, 2020/07/22. 8:e1038-1060. Abstract
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Windsor, HM, Abioye-Kuteyi EA, Leber JM, Morrow SD, Bulsara MK, Marshall BJ.  2005.  Prevalence of Helicobacter pylori in Indigenous Western Australians: comparison between urban and remote rural populations.. Medical Journa of Australia. 182(5):210-213.
Windsor, HM, Abioye-Kuteyi EA, Marshall BJ.  2005.  Methodology and transport medium for collection of Helicobacter pylori on a string test in remote locations.. Helicobacter. 10(6):630-634.
Wuraola, F, Famurewa B, Olasehinde O, Odujoko O, Adesina O, Aregbesola S.  2021.  From the breast to the upper jaw: A rare case of metastatic breast cancer, 2021/05/11. 14:60-63. Abstract

Breast cancer is the commonest malignancy in women globally. Metastasesof advanced breast carcinoma to bones, lungs and liver are well known but
spread to maxillary bone presenting as maxillary sinus and palatal swelling is
rare. We present a case of advanced breast carcinoma in a female Nigerian with
clinical, radiological and histopathological features of lung and right maxillary
bone metastases. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of
metastatic breast cancer to the lungs and maxilla in Nigeria. The debilitating
sequelae of advanced untreated breast carcinoma in a resource limited setting
with suboptimal comprehensive cancer care are highlighted.