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Submitted
Nwhator, SO, Gieselmann DR, Heikkinen AM, Lazzara M, Tervahartiala T, Sorsa T.  Submitted.  . Abstract
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Sorsa, T, Gursoy UK, Nwhator SO, Hernandez M, Tervahartiala T, Leppilahti J, Gursoy M, Könönen E, Emingil G, Pussinen PJ, Mäntylä P.  Submitted.  Analysis of matrix metalloproteinases, especially MMP-8. in gingival crevicular fluid, mouthrinse and saliva for monitoring periodontal diseases. 70:142–163., Number 1 Abstract
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Hernández-Ríos, P, Hernández M, Garrido M, Tervahartiala T, Leppilahti J, Kuula H, Nwhator S.  Submitted.  Oral fluid matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8 as a diagnostic tool in chronic periodontitis. Metalloproteinases Med. 3:11–18. Abstract
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2022
Ayodele, AS, Oladokun TT, T. O. Ayodele, Agbato SE, Jinadu AD, Olaleye SO.  2022.  Analysing the Criteria for Measuring the Determinants of Virtual Reality Technology Adoption in Real Estate Agency Practice in Lagos: A DEMATEL Method. Property Management, . 40(3):285-301.
Ogunbiyi, JO, T. T. Oladokun, Emmanuel OF.  2022.  Isomorphism of Client Satisfaction and Client Sophistication in Client Influence On Valuations: A Systematic Content Analysis,. 21st Annual Conference of the African Real Estate Society (AfRES), 06-09 September, Accra, Ghana.. , Accra, Ghana: AfRES
B.A., F, S.B. A, O.T. A, T.A. A.  2022.  Treatment costs of mandibular fractures in a Nigerian hospital. Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. 26(3):417- 422.
2021
Talabi, A, Sowande O, Mosaku K, Owojuyigbe A, Amosu L, Adejuyigbe O.  2021.  Effect of parental presence on anxiety during induction of anaesthesia in children undergoing elective day case surgery, 2021/12/01. 17 Abstract

BackgroundSurgical operation and anaesthesia induction are fearful events which may interfere with the smooth conduct of anaesthesia and postoperative recovery in children. Indeed, the fear of needles, syringes and unknown hospital environment often compound their anxiety. Various modalities such as use of clowns, music, low intensity light in the induction room, pharmacological agents and parental presence during induction of anaesthesia have been utilized with the aim of gaining the cooperation of the children during induction. However, their use has yielded conflicting results. This prospective study was conducted among children whose ages were between 2 and 15 years. They were randomized into parental presence and parental absence (un-accompanied) or control groups. The anxiety levels of children and parents in both groups were compared at baseline, separation and during induction of anaesthesia.
Results
The ages of the children ranged between 2 and 15 years with a mean age of 6.78 ± 2.50 years. The mean age of patients in the parental presence at induction (PPIA) was 7.14 ± 3.68 years while in the control group was 6.42 ± 3.31 years. The difference was not statistically significant, p < 0.05. The mean anxiety score of patients in the PPIA at reception, separation and induction of anaesthesia were 26.6 ± 9.2, 38.4 ± 18.3 and 54.1 ± 22.8 compared to 27.3 ± 8.04, 41.4 ± 21.7 and 58.6 ± 23.1 in the control group respectively, p < 0.05. The mean anxiety score of parents in the PPIA at reception, separation and induction of anaesthesia were 52.2 ± 6.7, 51.7 ± 7.8 and 51.9 ± 7.9 compared to 53.0 ± 6.5, 52.4 ± 6.2 and 52.9 ± 7.9 in the control group respectively, p < 0.05. Among the cohort of preschool age group, children in the control group were more anxious at induction compared to the PPIA group, p = 0.01. As the age increases, the anxiety state of the children decreases, t = − 0.398, p < 0.001. The mean score of parental satisfaction in the PPIA and the control groups were comparable, 8.1 ± 7.1 vs 7.3 ± 1.1 respectively, p = 0.395.
Conclusion
The presence of parents during induction of anaesthesia did not influence the anxiety states of children in our study. Anxiety at induction tends to reduce as the age of patients increases.

Adewinbi, S, Busari R, Animasahun LO, OMOTOSO E, Taleatu B.  2021.  Effective pseudocapacitive performance of binder free transparent α-V2O5 thin film electrode: Electrochemical and some surface probing, 2021/11/01. 621:413260. Abstract

Vanadium oxide nanomaterial was successfully prepared on conductive substrate via a simple and facile chemical route with no binder or additive. The film was characterized to investigate its microstructural, optical, electrical and electrochemical properties. The SEM micrographs of the annealed film presented enabling environment that is required for effective photocatalysis. It also demonstrated enhanced interaction between the film and the substrate and adequate pore size distribution that can allow free electrolytic ion intercalation/deintercalation for efficient supercapacitive response. EDX confirmed the elemental composition of the film. XRD and Raman spectroscopy showed substantial characteristic peaks that are attributes of orthorhombic crystal structure of V2O5 powder. Optical studies showed that the film exhibited high visible light transmittance and its energy band gap was found to be 2.77 eV. Pseudocapacitive performance of the V2O5 electrode was investigated via a three-electrode cell configuration. The film electrode exhibited highest areal capacity of 1.18 μAh cm⁻², energy density of 0.485 μWhcm⁻² at a power density of 107.71 μWcm⁻² and current density 0.25 mAcm⁻², moderate charge transfer resistance and superior cycling stability. The study demonstrated the viability of V2O5 film as electrode material for the development of high-performance supercapacitors.

Adewinbi, S, Taleatu B, Maphiri V, Fasakin O, OMOTOSO E, Oyedotun K, Manyala N.  2021.  Characterization of two-way fabricated hybrid metal-oxide nanostructured electrode materials for photovoltaic and miniaturized supercapacitor applications, 2021/07/27. 119:106699. Abstract

Portable electronic devices require a small volume self-powered energy system that can combine fabrication of energy harvesting and storage devices in one plane. This study focuses on fabricating novel all-oxide photovoltaic and supercapacitor devices based on MoO 3 , V 2 O 5 , and Co x O y thin electrodes prepared by a two-electrode cell arrangement. The fabricated devices were tested using solar simulator and potentiostat at ambient temperature. The power conversion efficiencies of the fabricated photovoltaic devices were found in the range of 0.17-0.39% depending on buffer layer characteristics. It therefore suggests that V 2 O 5 and MoO 3 can buffer photovoltaic processes by lowering the conduction band offset in the proximate Co x O y absorber. Pseudocapacitive behavior of MoO 3 /Co x O y ||MoO 3 /Co x O y and V 2 O 5 /Co x O y ||V 2 O 5 /Co x O y planar devices showed that they delivered maximum specific areal capacity values of 0.694 and 0.778 μAhcm − 2 respectively at discharge current density of 0.1 mAcm − 2. They also showed considerably low reduction in energy density (about 38.7%) even at a remarkable increase in power density of about 450% (at a high current density of 1.0 mAcm − 2). In addition, the symmetric microsupercapacitors showed excellent retention of capacity even after 5000 cycles. These results generally indicate the reliability of the fabricated devices in the development of portable electronic components for energy application.

Jegede, T, Tunde-Ayinmode M, Jegede T, Akinsulore A, Ibigbami O.  2021.  Bullying Behavior Roles and Mental Health Correlates Among Secondary School Students in Ilesa, Nigeria, 2021/07/01. Abstract

Objective: Bullying behaviour is pervasive, cuts across age group, transcends geographical location and its impacts include but not limited to physical or academic snags. The objective of the study is to determine bullying roles and their association with emotional or behavioural problems among adolescents in Ilesa, Nigeria. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed on 432 senior secondary school students (12-18 years old) in Ilesa (Nigeria). Peer Relationship Questionnaire was used to determine bullying roles and the Strength and Difficulty Questionnaire to measure behavioural problems. Results: Prevalence of bullying behaviour is high. The bully-victims had the highest means score on all subscales except pro-social. Similarly, the bully-victims was significantly associated with all subscales of the SDQ except the pro-social problems at (P< .001), (P=.024), (P= .004), (P= .004), and (P< .001) for conduct, emotional problem, hyperactivity problem, peer relationship problem and the total difficulty score respectively. Conclusion: This shows that participating in bullying behaviour irrespective of the role played increases the likelihood of psychological consequences, especially the bully-victim. There is a need to establish anti-bullying programs in schools to curb this menace and its mental health consequence.

Sarfo, F, Akpa O, Ovbiagele B, Akpalu A, Wahab K, Komolafe M, Obiako R, Owolabi L, Osaigbovo G, Jenkins C, Ogbole G, Fakunle A, Tiwari H, Arulogun O, Arnett D, Asowata O, Ogah O, Akinyemi R, Owolabi M.  2021.  Influence of age on links between major modifiable risk factors and stroke occurrence in West Africa, 2021/07/01. 428:117573. Abstract
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Chen, KJ, Duangthip D, Gao S, Huang F, Anthonappa R, Oliveira B, Turton B, Durward C, El Tantawi M, Attia D, Heima M, Muthu S, Maharani D, Folayan M, Phantumvanit P, Sitthisettapong T, Innes N, Crystal Y, Ramos-Gomez F, Chu C-H.  2021.  Oral Health Policies to Tackle the Burden of Early Childhood Caries: A Review of 14 Countries/Regions, 2021/06/01. 2:670154. Abstract
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Oyedotun, K, Mirghn A, Fasakin O, Mahmoud B, Tarimo D, Manyala N.  2021.  Activated Carbon Derived from Biomass-Waste Okra As High-Performance Electrodes for Use in Supercapacitors, 2021/05/30. MA2021-01:495-495. Abstract
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Animasahun, L, Taleatu B, Adewinbi S, Bolarinwa HS, Fasasi A.  2021.  Synthesis of SnO2/CuO/SnO2 Multi-layered Structure for Photoabsorption: Compositional and Some Interfacial Structural Studies, 2021/05/29. 3:74-81. Abstract

Many metal oxide heterostructures have been synthesized as mixed oxides or layered structures for photocatalytic, photodegradation of pollutants and light-harvesting applications. However, in the layered structures the effects of interfacial properties and composition have largely not been explored. Hence, the effects of interfacial mixing and diffusion of sandwiched thin CuO layer on optical absorption of as-deposited and heat-treated multi-layered structured SnO2/CuO/SnO2 films were studied. The RBS analysis of the as-deposited films showed the presence of a minute amount of Cu in the surface and bottom SnO2 layers of the structure. We attributed this to inhomogeneous layer thickness evidenced by very low Sn/Cu atoms ratio of the CuO layer. However, the thermal treatment of the layered structure led to pronounced interlayer mixing and consequent formation of SnO2-CuO solid solutions throughout the layered structure. The layer integrity of the inserted CuO of the as-deposited films was very high and the as-deposited structure was far more optically absorbing. However, the annealed structure showed lesser optical absorption because of the onset of interfacial mixing and improved crystallization. This reflected in the optical bandgap variations of the as-deposited and annealed multilayered structures. The significance of this result is that the multi-layered films possess band narrowing – evidence of increased photon absorption - making it a better candidate than pure SnO2 oxide for photocatalysis, photodegradation and photodetection applications. It also pointed to the fact that attention must be paid to effects of heat treatments or annealing when inserting an absorbing layer into a photocatalyst or a material meant for photodegradation or any light-harvesting material.

Jiang, CM, Duangthip D, Auychai P, Chiba M, Folayan M, Hamama H, Kamnoedboon P, Lyons K, Matangkasombut O, Mathu-Muju K, Mathur V, Mei ML, Morgan M, Poolthong S, Morankar R, Srinivasan M, Takahashi T, Yaklai S, Zhang S, Lo E.  2021.  Changes in Oral Health Policies and Guidelines During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Frontiers in Oral Health, 2021/05/21. 2 Abstract
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Oyedotun, K, Mirghni A, Fasakin O, Tarimo D, Mahmoud B, Manyala N.  2021.  Effect of growth-time on electrochemical performance of birnessite manganese oxide (δ-MnO2) as electrodes for supercapacitors: An insight into neutral aqueous electrolytes, 2021/04/01. 36:102419. Abstract

This study demonstrates successful synthesis of nanoflower-like birnessite δ-MnO2 materials through a simple and effective hydrothermal technique. Characterization of the flower-like materials grown at various dwell times were carried out by employing scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and Barrett–Joyner–Halenda (BJH) models, and electrochemical analysis to understand the effect of different growth time on their morphological, structural, surface area along with pore size distribution and electrochemical characteristics as electrodes for electrochemical capacitors. Attention is mainly based on electrochemical assessment of the as-synthesized materials with an insight into some neutral aqueous electrolytes, mainly lithium sulphate (1 M Li2SO4) and sodium sulphate (1 M Na2SO4) solutions as potential medium owing to their non-corrosive nature, cost-effectiveness, electrochemical stability and environmentally friendliness. Significant charge propagation, with a high specific capacitance of 387.1 F g⁻¹ was achieved for the half-cell electrode in 1 M Li2SO4 alongside excellent cycling stability for up to 5 000 cycles performed at 3 A g⁻¹ specific current. A comprehensive electrochemical assessment is performed to understanding the relationship between solvated and diffused ions of the neutral electrolytes that could result in fast charge storage kinetics as well as high specific capacitance.

Bright, B, Babalola C, Sam-Agudu N, Onyeaghala A, Olatunji A, Aduh U, Sobande P, Crowell T, Tebeje Y, Phillip S, Ndembi N, Folayan M.  2021.  COVID-19 preparedness: capacity to manufacture vaccines, therapeutics and diagnostics in sub-Saharan Africa, 2021/03/03. 17 Abstract
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Sarfo, FS, Akpa O, Ovbiagele B, Akpalu A, Wahab K, Komolafe M, Obiako R, Owolabi L, Osaigbovo GO, Jenkins C, Ogbole G, Fakunle A, Tiwari HK, Arulogun O, Arnett DK, Asowata O, Ogah O, Akinyemi RO, Owolabi MO.  2021.  Influence of age on links between major modifiable risk factors and stroke occurrence in West Africa, 2021. Journal of the Neurological Sciences. 428 Abstract

Background The burden of stroke in Africa is high. Understanding how age associates with major modifiable stroke risk factors could inform tailored demographic stroke prevention strategies. Purpose To quantify the magnitude and direction of the effect sizes of key modifiable stroke risk factors according to three age groups: <50 years (young), 50–65 years (middle age) and > 65 years (elderly) in West Africa. Methods This was a case-control study involving 15 sites in Ghana and Nigeria. Cases included adults aged ≥18 years with CT/MRI scan-typed stroke. Controls were age-and gender-matched stroke-free adults. Detailed evaluations for vascular, lifestyle and psychosocial factors were performed. We estimated adjusted odds ratios (aOR) using conditional logistic regression and population attributable risk (PAR) with 95% Confidence Interval of vascular risk factors by age groups. Results Among 3553 stroke cases, 813 (22.9%) were young, 1441 (40.6%) were middle-aged and 1299 (36.6%) were elderly. Among the 5 co-shared risk factors, dyslipidemia with PAR and aOR (95%CI) of 62.20% (52.82–71.58) and 4.13 (2.64–6.46) was highest among the young age group; hypertension with PAR of 94.31% (91.82–96.80) and aOR of 28.93 (15.10–55.44) was highest among the middle-age group. Diabetes with PAR of 32.29%(27.52–37.05) and aOR of 3.49 (2.56–4.75); meat consumption with PAR of 42.34%(32.33–52.35) and aOR of 2.40 (1.76, 3.26); and non-consumption of green vegetables, PAR of 16.81%(12.02–21.60) and aOR of 2.23 (1.60–3.12) were highest among the elderly age group. However confidence intervals of risk estimates overlapped across age groups. Additionally, among the young age group cigarette smoking, psychosocial stress and cardiac disease were independently associated with stroke. Furthermore, education, stress, physical inactivity and salt intake were associated with stroke in the middle-age group while cardiac disease was associated with stroke in the elderly age group. Conclusion There is a differential influence of age on the associations of major risk factors with stroke in this West African cohort. Targeting modifiable factors predominant within an age group may be more effective as a stroke prevention strategy.

Akpa, O, Sarfo FS, Owolabi M, Akpalu A, Wahab K, Obiako R, Komolafe M, Owolabi L, Osaigbovo GO, Ogbole G, Tiwari HK, Jenkins C, Fakunle AG, Olowookere S, Uvere EO, Akinyemi J, Arulogun O, Akpalu J, Tito-Ilori MM, Asowata OJ, Ibinaiye P, Akisanya C, Oyinloye OI, Appiah L, Sunmonu T, Olowoyo P, Agunloye AM, Adeoye AM, Yaria J, Lackland DT, Arnett D, Laryea RY, Adigun TO, Okekunle AP, Calys-Tagoe B, Ogah OS, Ogunronbi M, Obiabo OY, Isah SY, Dambatta HA, Tagge R, Ogenyi O, Fawale B, Melikam CL, Onasanya A, Adeniyi S, Akinyemi R, Ovbiagele B.  2021.  A Novel Afrocentric Stroke Risk Assessment Score: Models from the Siren Study, 2021. Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases. 30(10) Abstract

Background: Stroke risk can be quantified using risk factors whose effect sizes vary by geography and race. No stroke risk assessment tool exists to estimate aggregate stroke risk for indigenous African. Objectives: To develop Afrocentric risk-scoring models for stroke occurrence. Materials and Methods: We evaluated 3533 radiologically confirmed West African stroke cases paired 1:1 with age-, and sex-matched stroke-free controls in the SIREN study. The 7,066 subjects were randomly split into a training and testing set at the ratio of 85:15. Conditional logistic regression models were constructed by including 17 putative factors linked to stroke occurrence using the training set. Significant risk factors were assigned constant and standardized statistical weights based on regression coefficients (β) to develop an additive risk scoring system on a scale of 0–100%. Using the testing set, Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curves were constructed to obtain a total score to serve as cut-off to discriminate between cases and controls. We calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) at this cut-off. Results: For stroke occurrence, we identified 15 traditional vascular factors. Cohen's kappa for validity was maximal at a total risk score of 56% using both statistical weighting approaches to risk quantification and in both datasets. The risk score had a predictive accuracy of 76% (95%CI: 74–79%), sensitivity of 80.3%, specificity of 63.0%, PPV of 68.5% and NPV of 76.2% in the test dataset. For ischemic strokes, 12 risk factors had predictive accuracy of 78% (95%CI: 74–81%). For hemorrhagic strokes, 7 factors had a predictive accuracy of 79% (95%CI: 73–84%). Conclusions: The SIREN models quantify aggregate stroke risk in indigenous West Africans with good accuracy. Prospective studies are needed to validate this instrument for stroke prevention.

Melesse, DY, Maulide Cane R, Mangombe A, Ijadunola M, Manu A, Bamgboye E, Mohiddin A, Muhumuza Kananura R, Akwara E, Plessis E, Dibaba Y, Mutua M, Mekonnen W, Faye C, Neal S, Ties B.  2021.  Inequalities in early marriage, childbearing and sexual debut among adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa, 06. Reproductive Health. 18 Abstract
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