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Shittu, K, Oyedele D, Babatunde K.  2017.  The effects of moisture content at tillage on soil strength in maize production, 2017/04/01. Egyptian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences. 4 Abstract
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Ogunbodede, E, A Kida I, S Madjapa H, Amedari M, Ehizele A, Mutave R, Sodipo B, Temilola S, Okoye L.  2015.  Oral Health Inequalities between Rural and Urban Populations of the African and Middle East Region, 2015/07/01. Advances in dental research. 27:18-25. Abstract

Although there have been major improvements in oral health, with remarkable advances in the prevention and management of oral diseases, globally, inequalities persist between urban and rural communities. These inequalities exist in the distribution of oral health services, accessibility, utilization, treatment outcomes, oral health knowledge and practices, health insurance coverage, oral health-related quality of life, and prevalence of oral diseases, among others. People living in rural areas are likely to be poorer, be less health literate, have more caries, have fewer teeth, have no health insurance coverage, and have less money to spend on dental care than persons living in urban areas. Rural areas are often associated with lower education levels, which in turn have been found to be related to lower levels of health literacy and poor use of health care services. These factors have an impact on oral health care, service delivery, and research. Hence, unmet dental care remains one of the most urgent health care needs in these communities. We highlight some of the conceptual issues relating to urban-rural inequalities in oral health, especially in the African and Middle East Region (AMER). Actions to reduce oral health inequalities and ameliorate rural-urban disparity are necessary both within the health sector and the wider policy environment. Recommended actions include population-specific oral health promotion programs, measures aimed at increasing access to oral health services in rural areas, integration of oral health into existing primary health care services, and support for research aimed at informing policy on the social determinants of health. Concerted efforts must be made by all stakeholders (governments, health care workforce, organizations, and communities) to reduce disparities and improve oral health outcomes in underserved populations.© International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

San-Martin, L, CASTAO SEIQUER SR A, Ribas Pérez D, Ogunbodede E.  2014.  Undergraduate Geriatric Dentistry Programs in Spain, 2014/06/26. Current Research in Dentistry. 6 Abstract

Objective: Over the past few decades, the world has experienced a gradual increase in the percentage of elderly people aged 65 years and over. As this elderly population increases, evidence suggests that their demand for dental services would increase. The increasing population of the elderly population in Spain has underlined the need for the dental profession to take pay particular attention to the oral health needs of older patients. The aim of this report is to present a preliminary assessment of the undergraduate Geriatric Dentistry programs in Spanish dental schools.Method: Study participants included all the dental schools in Spain (n=19). Using a simple, 12-item questionnaire, information was collected regarding the geriatric dental education programs from the official websites of all the schools.
Results: Only 42% (n=8) of schools offered a specific geriatric dentistry course. No significant differences were found in the proportion of public and private dental schools with geriatric dentistry departments (p=0.1312).
Conclusion: More studies on the curriculum content, design, implementation and evaluation of geriatric dentistry programs at the undergraduate level should be developed. Research must also focus on assessing the access and improvement to the oral care of the elderly population. Dental schools, organizations, local and state governments need to work together, using a multidisciplinary approach, in responding to the unmet needs of the elderly population.

San-Martin, L, CASTAO SEIQUER SR A, Ribas Pérez D, Ogunbodede E.  2014.  Undergraduate Geriatric Dentistry Programs in Spain, 2014/06/26. Current Research in Dentistry. 6 Abstract

Objective: Over the past few decades, the world has experienced a gradual increase in the percentage of elderly people aged 65 years and over. As this elderly population increases, evidence suggests that their demand for dental services would increase. The increasing population of the elderly population in Spain has underlined the need for the dental profession to take pay particular attention to the oral health needs of older patients. The aim of this report is to present a preliminary assessment of the undergraduate Geriatric Dentistry programs in Spanish dental schools.Method: Study participants included all the dental schools in Spain (n=19). Using a simple, 12-item questionnaire, information was collected regarding the geriatric dental education programs from the official websites of all the schools.
Results: Only 42% (n=8) of schools offered a specific geriatric dentistry course. No significant differences were found in the proportion of public and private dental schools with geriatric dentistry departments (p=0.1312).
Conclusion: More studies on the curriculum content, design, implementation and evaluation of geriatric dentistry programs at the undergraduate level should be developed. Research must also focus on assessing the access and improvement to the oral care of the elderly population. Dental schools, organizations, local and state governments need to work together, using a multidisciplinary approach, in responding to the unmet needs of the elderly population.

Sofowora, A, Ogunbodede E, Onayade A.  2013.  The Role and Place of Medicinal Plants in the Strategies for Disease Prevention, 2013/08/14. African journal of traditional, complementary, and alternative medicines : AJTCAM / African Networks on Ethnomedicines. 10:210-229. Abstract

Medicinal plants have been used in healthcare since time immemorial. Studies have been carried out globally to verify their efficacy and some of the findings have led to the production of plant-based medicines. The global market value of medicinal plant products exceeds $100 billion per annum. This paper discusses the role, contributions and usefulness of medicinal plants in tackling the diseases of public health importance, with particular emphasis on the current strategic approaches to disease prevention. A comparison is drawn between the 'whole population' and 'high-risk' strategies. The usefulness of the common-factor approach as a method of engaging other health promoters in propagating the ideals of medicinal plants is highlighted. The place of medicinal plants in preventing common diseases is further examined under the five core principles of the Primary Health Care (PHC) approach. Medicinal plants play vital roles in disease prevention and their promotion and use fit into all existing prevention strategies. However, conscious efforts need to be made to properly identify, recognise and position medicinal plants in the design and implementation of these strategies. These approaches present interesting and emerging perspectives in the field of medicinal plants. Recommendations are proposed for strategising the future role and place for medicinal plants in disease prevention.

San-Martin, L, Ogunbodede E, Kalenderian E.  2013.  A 50-year audit of published peer-reviewed literature on pit and fissure sealants, 1962–2011, 2013/06/14. Acta odontologica Scandinavica. 71 Abstract

Objective:Pit and fissure sealants have been used for many decades to prevent the initiation of caries on susceptible tooth surfaces. The purpose of this study was to analyze the peer-reviewed published scientific literature on pit and fissure sealants over the last 50 years.
Materials and methods:
On the PubMed database, all publications on pit and fissure sealants from 1962-2011 were extracted using the search phrase [(pit OR fissure) AND (sealant OR sealants OR adhesive)]. Details of all retrievals were individually entered into SPSS for analysis.
Results:
A total of 2829 publications were found. The mean number of authors was 2.73 ± 1.90 (range = 1-23). Although single-authorship was the modal group with 32.1%, it had a sustained decrease from 75.0% for 1962-1971 to 17.6% for 2002-2011. On the contrary, publications with three or more authors increased from 8.3% to 47.3% during the same period. Human studies accounted for 88.6% and clinical trial was 11.9%, followed by reviews at 10.2% and randomized controlled trials at 6.9%. English was the language of reporting for 82.0% of the studies.
Conclusion:
It is anticipated that future research on pit and fissure sealants will focus on newer and more effective materials.

San-Martin, L, Castaño A, Bravo M, Tavares M, Niederman R, Ogunbodede E.  2013.  Dental sealant knowledge, opinion, values and practice of Spanish dentists, 2013/02/08. BMC oral health. 13:12. Abstract

BackgroundMultiple guidelines and systematic reviews recommend sealant use to reduce caries risk. Yet, multiple reports also indicate that sealants are significantly underutilized. This study examined the knowledge, opinions, values, and practice (KOVP) of dentists concerning sealant use in the southwest region of Andalusia, Spain. This is a prelude to the generation of a regional plan for improving children’s oral health in Andalusia.
Methods
The survey’s target population was dentists working in western Andalusia, equally distributed in the provinces of Seville, Cadiz, and Huelva (N=2,047). A convenience sample of meeting participants and meeting participant email lists (N=400) were solicited from the annual course on Community and Pediatric Dentistry. This course is required for all public health sector dentists, and is open to all private sector dentists. Information on the dentist’s KOVP of sealants was collected using four-part questionnaire with 31, 5-point Likert-scaled questions.
Results
The survey population demographics included 190 men (48%) and 206 women (52%) with an average clinical experience of 10.6 (± 8.4) years and 9.3 (± 7.5) years, respectively. A significant sex difference was observed in the distribution of place of work (urban/suburb) (p=0.001), but no sex differences between working sector (public/private). The mean ± SD values for each of the four KOVP sections for pit and fissure sealants were: knowledge = 3.57 ± 0.47; opinion = 2.48 ± 0.47; value = 2.74 ± 0.52; and practice = 3.48 ± 0.50. No sex differences were found in KOVP (all p >0.4). Independent of sex: knowledge statistically differed by years of experience and place of work; opinion statistically differed by years of experience and sector; and practice statistically differed by years of experience and sector. Less experienced dentists tended to have slightly higher scores (~0.25 on a Likert 1–5 scale). Statistically significant correlations were found between knowledge and practice (r=0.44, p=0.00) and between opinion and value (r=0.35, p=0.00).
Conclusions
The results suggest that, similar to other countries, Andalusian dentists know that sealants are effective, have neutral to positive attitudes toward sealants; though, based on epidemiological studies, underuse sealants. Therefore, methods other than classical behavior change (eg: financial or legal mechanisms) will be required to change practice patterns aimed at improving children's oral health.

San-Martin, L, Castaño A, Bravo M, Tavares M, Niederman R, Ogunbodede E.  2013.  Dental sealant knowledge, opinion, values and practice of Spanish dentists, 2013/02/08. BMC oral health. 13:12. Abstract

BackgroundMultiple guidelines and systematic reviews recommend sealant use to reduce caries risk. Yet, multiple reports also indicate that sealants are significantly underutilized. This study examined the knowledge, opinions, values, and practice (KOVP) of dentists concerning sealant use in the southwest region of Andalusia, Spain. This is a prelude to the generation of a regional plan for improving children’s oral health in Andalusia.
Methods
The survey’s target population was dentists working in western Andalusia, equally distributed in the provinces of Seville, Cadiz, and Huelva (N=2,047). A convenience sample of meeting participants and meeting participant email lists (N=400) were solicited from the annual course on Community and Pediatric Dentistry. This course is required for all public health sector dentists, and is open to all private sector dentists. Information on the dentist’s KOVP of sealants was collected using four-part questionnaire with 31, 5-point Likert-scaled questions.
Results
The survey population demographics included 190 men (48%) and 206 women (52%) with an average clinical experience of 10.6 (± 8.4) years and 9.3 (± 7.5) years, respectively. A significant sex difference was observed in the distribution of place of work (urban/suburb) (p=0.001), but no sex differences between working sector (public/private). The mean ± SD values for each of the four KOVP sections for pit and fissure sealants were: knowledge = 3.57 ± 0.47; opinion = 2.48 ± 0.47; value = 2.74 ± 0.52; and practice = 3.48 ± 0.50. No sex differences were found in KOVP (all p >0.4). Independent of sex: knowledge statistically differed by years of experience and place of work; opinion statistically differed by years of experience and sector; and practice statistically differed by years of experience and sector. Less experienced dentists tended to have slightly higher scores (~0.25 on a Likert 1–5 scale). Statistically significant correlations were found between knowledge and practice (r=0.44, p=0.00) and between opinion and value (r=0.35, p=0.00).
Conclusions
The results suggest that, similar to other countries, Andalusian dentists know that sealants are effective, have neutral to positive attitudes toward sealants; though, based on epidemiological studies, underuse sealants. Therefore, methods other than classical behavior change (eg: financial or legal mechanisms) will be required to change practice patterns aimed at improving children's oral health.

xiv Siyanbola, Isola O, Hassan O, Ogundari I, Awoleye M, Adesina F, Ilori M.  2010.  R&D productivity and collaborations in selected Nigerian universities., 2010/10/20. Abstract

Research and development (R&D) is a significant component of quality higher education. This is quite understandable and appreciable because R&D, most especially in Science and Technology (S&T), has become the most enduring and effective means of improving sustainable economic growth, development and re-enforcing competitiveness in industries in a rapidly changing world. Universities are widely regarded not only as teaching establishments but also as organisations that create new knowledge and innovation through research. Many academics are of the opinion that doing research improves their teaching (Colbeck, 1998, 2002; Gamson, 1995; Stevans and Reingold, 2000; Robertson and Bond, 2001; Wenzel, 2001; Winkler, 1992a, b; Woolcock, 1997; Zamorski, 2002; in Begum, 2006). In recent times, universities often use evidence of research excellenceto employ or promote staff. The main claim of the teachers and administrators are that research activity can and does serve as an important mode of teaching and a valuable means of learning and thus research is a strong condition for teaching.R&D is one of the main thrusts of activities of western universities. The developed nations have clearly demonstrated that one of the most potent means of achieving developmental goals is effective building of capability in Research and Development. They have also demonstrated the relevance of effective collaboration to sustainable scientific and technological advancement (Boozeman and Lee, 2003). To corroborate this, Ehikhamenor (2003) opined that scientific productivity, in the form of intellectual contributions to the advancement of S&T, is a fundamental consideration in the scientific enterprise. A crucial requirement for
productivity and development in S&T is a system of communication among scientists and the dissemination of scientific information. Productive R&D is expected to lead to new product(s) development or improvement of existing product(s), new process development or improvement of existing process, patents, copyrights and publications. Scientific publication is a sign of good quality of invention and research outputs. Patents, copyrights, and funds from companies are signs that those inventions have market potentials (Carneiro, 2000; Werner and Souder, 1997; in Numprasertchai and Igel, 2005). Tangible R&D outcomes should promote the link between academia and the industry. However, many private and public organizations in Nigeria are skeptical about R&D outcomes from the universities and in many cases the needs of these organisations are not met. These invariably have further widened the gap between universities and industries (Oyebisi et al., 1996).
Many studies on research productivity and collaborations include an underlining assumption that collaborative activities increase research productivity (Duque et al., 2005). However, there is a dearth of information on the validity of this proposition in Nigeria. Are Nigerian researchers collaborating for R&D among themselves and with others outside their institutions? What factors inhibit collaboration activities of researchers? What influence do researchers’ collaborations have on their R&D productivity? These are some of the pertinent questions addressed in this study. For the survey, 457 copies of questionnaire were randomly distributed among lecturers. 274 of these were returned and found useful (60% response rate). The field respondents were from Faculties of Agriculture (30.8%), Science (38.8%) and Engineering/Technology (30.4%). In assessing R&D productivity of researchers we adopt the partial productivity approach. Researchers’ publications were used as output and the number of years spent to produce the publications as input (in this study 5 years, (2004 – 2008)). The normal count (of output), which is the most frequently used approach, is adopted. The outcome of the study indicated a positive relationship between R&D productivity and collaboration. This is in agreement with some previous studies on the subject of research productivity and collaboration (Lee and Bozeman, 2005; Landry et al., 1996; Harman, 1999; in Rijnsoever et al., 2008, Walsh and Maloney, 2003; in Duque et. al., (2005)

Adesina, F, Odekunle T, Ajayi O, Eludoyin A, Babatimehin O, DAMI A, Sanni M, Aloba O, Magare A, Adetiloye OT.  2010.  Adaptation Strategies of Action for Nigeria, 2010/06/18. Abstract
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Adesina, F, Odekunle T, Ajayi O, Eludoyin A, Babatimehin O, DAMI A, Sanni M, Aloba O, Magare A, Adetiloye OT.  2010.  Adaptation Strategies of Action for Nigeria, 2010/06/18. Abstract
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Adesina, F, Odekunle T, Ajayi O, Eludoyin A, Babatimehin O, DAMI A, Sanni M, Aloba O, Magare A, Adetiloye OT.  2010.  Adaptation Strategies of Action for Nigeria, 2010/06/18. Abstract
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xiv Siyanbola, Isola O, Hassan O, Ogundari I, Awoleye M, Adesina F, Ilori M.  2010.  R&D productivity and collaborations in selected Nigerian universities., 2010/06/10. Abstract
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Nwhator, S, Ogunbodede E, Adedigba M, Sagay E.  2010.  Prognostic Indicators of Gingival Recession in Nigeria: Preliminary Findings, 2010/06/01. TAF Preventive Medicine Bulletin. 9 Abstract

AIM: Literature is replete with studies on gingival recession, the apical shift of the gingival margin from the cemento-enamel junction. Chronic periodontitis and frequent toothbrushing are among its aetiological factors. Many of these were however prevalence studies. The current study was therefore aimed at separating prognostic indicators from determinants of the number of recessions. METHOD: 650 consecutive adult patients visiting a Nigerian teaching hospital were examined using a checklist including plaque, calculus, Miller’s class of recession and other parameters.. A total of 408 recession sites were identified. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients with recession was 42.3 years; mean number of recession was 4.74 Incisors had the highest number of recessions (35.7%). While a factor such as age was related both to the number and prognosis of recession sites, abrasion and plaque were only related to prognosis. Again, some of the factors previously significantly related to prognosis on univariate analysis like calculus and smoking, lost their significance on regression analysis. CONCLUSION: The three strongest predictors of prognosis (Miller’s class) of recession were age, plaque and abrasion. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(3): 187-194]

Nwhator, S, Ogunbodede E, Adedigba M, Sagay E.  2010.  Prognostic Indicators of Gingival Recession in Nigeria: Preliminary Findings, 2010/06/01. TAF Preventive Medicine Bulletin. 9 Abstract

AIM: Literature is replete with studies on gingival recession, the apical shift of the gingival margin from the cemento-enamel junction. Chronic periodontitis and frequent toothbrushing are among its aetiological factors. Many of these were however prevalence studies. The current study was therefore aimed at separating prognostic indicators from determinants of the number of recessions. METHOD: 650 consecutive adult patients visiting a Nigerian teaching hospital were examined using a checklist including plaque, calculus, Miller’s class of recession and other parameters.. A total of 408 recession sites were identified. RESULTS: The mean age of the patients with recession was 42.3 years; mean number of recession was 4.74 Incisors had the highest number of recessions (35.7%). While a factor such as age was related both to the number and prognosis of recession sites, abrasion and plaque were only related to prognosis. Again, some of the factors previously significantly related to prognosis on univariate analysis like calculus and smoking, lost their significance on regression analysis. CONCLUSION: The three strongest predictors of prognosis (Miller’s class) of recession were age, plaque and abrasion. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(3): 187-194]

Adeniyi, A, Ogunbodede E, Jeboda Sonny O, Sofola O.  2010.  Dental caries occurrence and associated oral hygiene practices among rural and urban Nigerian pre-school children, 2010/01/01. Journal of Dentistry and Oral Hygiene. 1:64-70. Abstract

The objective of this research is to assess the prevalence of dental caries in Nigerian preschool children and establish the proportion of treated lesions and to also investigate the association between oral hygiene habits and dental caries prevalence in the study population. Dental examinations were performed on 404 children aged between 18 months and 5 years and an interview were conducted for the mothers to obtain information about the child and her/his household. The children were recruited from primary health centres where pre-school children are routinely immunized in Lagos State. The prevalence of dental caries in the study population was 10.9%. A significantly higher caries occurrence was observed in children older than 3 years than in those less than 3 years of age (p < 0.001). Caries prevalence was not significantly associated with who supervises the child's tooth-brushing (p = 0.106), type of toothpaste used (p = 0.657) and frequency of tooth brushing (p = 0.774). Oral hygiene score was positively correlated with caries prevalence and the relationship was statistically significant (p < 0.000). While the prevalence of caries in the study was low, the child's age and oral hygiene score were observed to influence the occurrence of caries in the study population.

Adeniyi, A, Ogunbodede E, Jeboda Sonny O, Sofola O.  2010.  Dental caries occurrence and associated oral hygiene practices among rural and urban Nigerian pre-school children, 2010/01/01. Journal of Dentistry and Oral Hygiene. 1:64-70. Abstract

The objective of this research is to assess the prevalence of dental caries in Nigerian preschool children and establish the proportion of treated lesions and to also investigate the association between oral hygiene habits and dental caries prevalence in the study population. Dental examinations were performed on 404 children aged between 18 months and 5 years and an interview were conducted for the mothers to obtain information about the child and her/his household. The children were recruited from primary health centres where pre-school children are routinely immunized in Lagos State. The prevalence of dental caries in the study population was 10.9%. A significantly higher caries occurrence was observed in children older than 3 years than in those less than 3 years of age (p < 0.001). Caries prevalence was not significantly associated with who supervises the child's tooth-brushing (p = 0.106), type of toothpaste used (p = 0.657) and frequency of tooth brushing (p = 0.774). Oral hygiene score was positively correlated with caries prevalence and the relationship was statistically significant (p < 0.000). While the prevalence of caries in the study was low, the child's age and oral hygiene score were observed to influence the occurrence of caries in the study population.

Adeniyi, A, Ogunbodede E, Sonny Jeboda O, Folayan M.  2009.  Do maternal factors influence the dental health status of Nigerian pre-school children?, 2009/10/01 International journal of paediatric dentistry / the British Paedodontic Society [and] the International Association of Dentistry for Children. 19:448-54. Abstract

This study was designed to investigate the relationship between maternal related factors and the dental health status of pre-school children in Lagos State, Nigeria.A cross-sectional study of 404 pairs of mothers and their pre-school children was conducted at two selected primary health centres in Lagos State Nigeria. An interviewer administered questionnaire recorded the mother's socio-demographic characteristics and assessed her perception of her child's dental needs, attitude to oral disease prevention, level of dental health knowledge and attitude to oral health. The child's dental status was assessed using the dft index (caries status) and the simplified oral hygiene index. Data analysis tools included Spearman's correlation coefficient and multivariate logistic regression.
Maternal age, maternal education, location of residence, maternal knowledge, and attitudes were all positively correlated with the child's caries and oral hygiene status. There were statistically significant correlations between maternal attitude and the oral hygiene index (P = 0.01) and dft score (P = 0.001). Maternal age also had a significant relationship with the child's caries status (P = 0.003).
This study concluded that maternal age and attitude were important determinants of caries experience whereas the mother's attitude was an important determinant of oral cleanliness in pre-school children in Lagos State Nigeria.

Ogunfolakan, A, Ogundiran A, Oshineye BK, Steyn G, Géloin CG, Mande CI, Martineau J-L, Amutabi CMN, Owino PM, Ojo CO, others.  2009.  Movements, borders, and identities in Africa. 40: University Rochester Press Abstract
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De Vries(nci, J, Murtomaa H, Butler(com M, Cherrett(nci H, Ferrillo(nci P, Ferro M, Gadbury-Amyot C, Haden K, Manogue M, Mintz J, E. Mulvihill(nci J, Murray(nci B, Nattestad A, Nielsen(nci D, Ogunbodede E, Parkash H, Plasschaert(nci F, T. Reed(nci M, L. Rupp(com R, Shanley(nci D.  2008.  The Global Network on Dental Education: a new vision for IFDEA, 2008/02/15. European Journal of Dental Education. 12:167-175. Abstract

The advent of globalization has changed our perspectives radically. It presents increased understanding of world affairs, new challenges and exciting opportunities. The inequitable distribution and use of finite energy resources and global warming are just two examples of challenges that can only be addressed by concerted international collaboration. Globalization has become an increasingly important influence on dentistry and dental education. The International Federation for Dental Educators and Associations (IFDEA) welcomes the challenges it now faces as a player in a complex multifaceted global community. This report addresses the new circumstances in which IFDEA must operate, taking account of the recommendations made by other working groups. The report reviews the background and evolution of IFDEA and describes the extensive developments that have taken place in IFDEA over the past year with the introductions of a new Constitution and Bylaws overseen by a newly established Board of Directors. These were the consequence of a new mission, goals and objectives for IFDEA. An expanded organization is planned using http://www.IFDEA.org as the primary instrument to facilitate the exchange of knowledge, programmes and expertise between colleagues and federated associations throughout the world, thereby promoting higher standards in oral health through education in low-, middle- and high-income countries of the world. Such aspirations are modified by the reality and enormity of poverty-related global ill health.

Salami, A. T., Ofoezie, I. E., and Awotoye OO.  2008.  Towards a Low Carbon Economy,. : Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Institute of Ecology and Environmental Studies, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.
Nwhator, S, Ogunbodede E, Adedigba M, Sagay E.  2006.  Determinants of gingival recession in Ile-Ife, Nigeria., 2006/09/01. Abstract
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Salami, AT.  2006.  Imperatives of Space Technology for Sustainable Forest Management in Nigeria, . : A Publication of Space Applications and Environmental Science Laboratory, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife.
Salami, A. T., Balogun EE.  2006.  Utilization of NigeriaSat-1 and other Satellites for Monitoring Deforestation and Biodiversity Loss in Nigeria, . : A Monograph Published by National Space Research and Development Agency, Federal Ministry of Science and Technology, Abuja