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Ogunbodede, E, Sheiham A.  1997.  Oral rehydration therapy - A dental perspective, 1997/01/01. International dental journal. 46:565-71. Abstract

Sugar-based Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORT) is still the conventional treatment for diarrhoeal diseases. The WHO/UNICEF, and other groups endorse and actively promote its use for all cases of diarrhoea. Despite the deleterious effects of sugars promotion on dental health, and the incontrovertible role of sugars as the major factor responsible for the present upsurge in dental caries prevalence in the developing countries, the search for an ideal Oral Rehydration Solution (ORS) has so far completely ignored any dental considerations. Of the presently available rehydration solutions, the cereal or food-based solutions offer greater advantages over the sugar based solutions. Further research efforts must be directed at non-sugar based ORT, and funding organisations should give support to researchers and research institutions working to replace sugars with cereal flours, improve food-based ORS, or develop novel approaches to ORT that are based on non-cariogenic ingredients. Policy makers, researchers and health care workers generally must always consider, in addition to other factors, the dental implications of their recommendations on ORT.

Ogunbodede, E, Fatusi O, Akintomide A, Kolawole K, Ajayi A.  2005.  Oral health status in a Nigerian diabetics, 2005/11/01. The journal of contemporary dental practice. 6:75-84. Abstract

Oral manifestations of diabetes mellitus have been documented, but the effect of glycemic control on the oral tissues has been scantily reported. The oral health status of 65 metabolically controlled adult diabetic patients attending the Diabetes Clinic of Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria, was prospectively assessed over six months and compared with that of 54 non-diabetic acting as controls. The mean duration of diabetes was 100.5+/-85.1 months. The difference in periodontal status of the patients and control, assessed using the Community Periodontal Index of Treatment Needs (CPITN), was not statistically significant (p=0.07). The degree of hyposalivation between the two groups was, however, statiscally significant (p<0.05). No significant difference was observed in the altered taste, burning mouth sensation, angular cheilitis, glossitis, and stomatitis status of the two groups. We conclude, with adequate metabolic control, the oral health status of a diabetic may not be significantly different from that of a non-diabetic except for xerostomia. A good understanding of the interactions between systemic diseases and oral health is imperative for physicians and dental practitioners. The need for early detection and closer linkages between the dental and medical professions in managing diabetic patients is emphasized.

Ogunbodede, E, Arotiba J.  1997.  Camel bite injuries of the orofacial region: Report of a case, 1997/11/01. Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery : official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. 55:1174-6. Abstract
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Ogunbodede, E.  2013.  Population ageing and the implications for oral health in Africa, 2013/03/01. Gerodontology. 30:1-2. Abstract
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Ogunbodede, E, AMEDARI MI, Rudolph M.  2014.  FOOD SECURITY AND ORAL HEALTH OF UNIVERSITY STUDENTS IN NIGERIA., 2014/06/27. Abstract

Objective: Oral health is associated with the availability, accessibility, and utilization of food. The objective of this study is to investigate the physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food among university students in Nigeria, and relate these to their oral health.Method: Extensive literature review was conducted using internet sources, journal publications and official reports. Cross-sectional stratified random sampling was conducted for undergraduate university students resident on campus at Obafemi Awolowo University. Data was collected using a modified format of the United States Household Food Security Survey Module of the USDA, with a section on oral health. Data was analysed using the SPSS Statistical package (Version 16) and differences were taken as significant at p<0.05.
Result:
Using the data collected, respondents were categorised into a “food secure” and “food insecure” groups. Food insecure individuals were more likely to have dental pathologies including toothache, gum bleeding, and oro-facial pain. They also had more
frequent history of tooth removal, irregular dental visit and less frequent tooth brush
Conclusion: Individuals challenged by the unavailability, inaccessibility, and poor utilization of safe and nutritious foods tend to have poorer oral health compared to those with better food security.

Ogunbodede, EO, Fatusi OA, Folayan MO, Olayiwola G.  2005.   Retrospective survey of antibiotic prescription in dentistry. Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice . 6(2):64-71.
Ogunbodede, E.  2004.  HIV/AIDS Situation in Africa, 2004/12/01. International Dental Journal. 54:352-360. Abstract

The HIV/AIDS pandemic marks a severe development crisis in Africa, which remains by far the worst affected region in the world. Forty-two million people now live with HIV/AIDS of which 29.4 million (70.0%) are from sub-Saharan Africa. Approximately 5 million new infections occurred in 2002 and 3.5 million (70.0%) of these were also from sub-Saharan Africa. The estimated number of children orphaned by AIDS living in the region is 11 million. In 2002, the epidemic claimed about 2.4 million lives in Africa, more than 70% of the 3.1 million deaths worldwide. Average life expectancy in sub-Saharan Africa is now 47 years, when it would have been 62 years without AIDS. HIV/AIDS stigma is still a major problem despite the extensive spread of the epidemic. A complex interaction of material, social, cultural and behavioural factors shape the nature, process and outcome of the epidemic in Africa. However, too many partners and unprotected sex appear to be at the core of the problem, Even if exceptionally effective prevention, treatment and care programmes take hold immediately, the scale of the crisis means that the human and socio-economic toll will remain significant for many generations. Although 70% of people living with HIV/AIDS are in Africa, only 6,569 (4.7%) of the 140,736 scientific publications on HIV/AIDS, from 1981 to 2000, are directly related to Africa. Effective responses to the epidemic require a multisectoral approach, including governments, the business sector and civil society.

Ogunbodede, E, A. Ojo M, Otuyemi O, O. Hollist N.  1992.  Response of the oral tissues to prolonged uninterrupted coverage by a removable partial denture. Case report, 1992/05/01. Australian dental journal. 37:103-6. Abstract

The response of hard and soft oral tissues to prolonged uninterrupted wearing of a removable partial prosthesis in a Nigerian patient is discussed. To our knowledge only one case has been reported in the literature. In this case additional mucosal changes to the reported caries-free pattern is discussed.

Ogunbodede, E, Olusile A, Ogunniyi SO, L Faleyimu B.  1996.  Socio-economic factors and dental health in obstetric population, 1996/07/01. West African journal of medicine. 15:158-62. Abstract

The relationship between socio-economic factors and dental health in an Obstetric Nigerian population was studied. The mean gestational age (+/-standard deviation) was 30.16 + 5.45 weeks (range 16-40 weeks). Acquisition of dental education was found to be unrelated to level of education. When the prevalence of dental caries and periodontal disease were considered, the difference between the high, middle and low socio-economic groups were found to be significant (p < 0.05).

Ogunbodede, E, I Ugboko V, Ojo MA.  1997.  Oral malignances in Ile-Ife Nigeria, 1997/02/01. East African medical journal. 74:33-6. Abstract

Fifty nine patients with histologically confirmed cases of oral malignant neoplasia were included in this study. There was a male preponderance with the male to female ratio being 2.5 to 1.0. The average waiting period before presentation was 8.9 +/- 6.5 months (range: two to 24 months). Squamous cell carcinoma was the predominant variety, 50.8%, of all malignancies recorded. The alveolar ridge and the gingivae were the commonest sites accounting for 40.7% of all cases. Majority of the patients with squamous cell carcinoma, (80.8%), presented with stage IV of this disease. The pattern of oral malignancies in the population studied appears slightly different from earlier observations in Western Europe and Asia. The necessity to strengthen research on the epidemiology of the disease in Nigeria and other African countries is highlighted.

Ogunbodede, E, A Kida I, S Madjapa H, Amedari M, Ehizele A, Mutave R, Sodipo B, Temilola S, Okoye L.  2015.  Oral Health Inequalities between Rural and Urban Populations of the African and Middle East Region, 2015/07/01. Advances in dental research. 27:18-25. Abstract

Although there have been major improvements in oral health, with remarkable advances in the prevention and management of oral diseases, globally, inequalities persist between urban and rural communities. These inequalities exist in the distribution of oral health services, accessibility, utilization, treatment outcomes, oral health knowledge and practices, health insurance coverage, oral health-related quality of life, and prevalence of oral diseases, among others. People living in rural areas are likely to be poorer, be less health literate, have more caries, have fewer teeth, have no health insurance coverage, and have less money to spend on dental care than persons living in urban areas. Rural areas are often associated with lower education levels, which in turn have been found to be related to lower levels of health literacy and poor use of health care services. These factors have an impact on oral health care, service delivery, and research. Hence, unmet dental care remains one of the most urgent health care needs in these communities. We highlight some of the conceptual issues relating to urban-rural inequalities in oral health, especially in the African and Middle East Region (AMER). Actions to reduce oral health inequalities and ameliorate rural-urban disparity are necessary both within the health sector and the wider policy environment. Recommended actions include population-specific oral health promotion programs, measures aimed at increasing access to oral health services in rural areas, integration of oral health into existing primary health care services, and support for research aimed at informing policy on the social determinants of health. Concerted efforts must be made by all stakeholders (governments, health care workforce, organizations, and communities) to reduce disparities and improve oral health outcomes in underserved populations.© International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

Ogunbodede, E, Adamolekun B, Akintomide A.  1998.  Oral Health and Dental Treatment Needs in Nigerian Patients with Epilepsy, 1998/07/01. Epilepsia. 39:590-4. Abstract

We determined the prevalence of oral disorders and the dental treatment needs of outpatients with epilepsy.A questionnaire was administered to 56 consecutive patients (35 males, 21 females) presenting to an outpatient clinic. All patients underwent dental examinations. The clinical and diagnostic features of each patient's epilepsy were also obtained.
The mean age (+/-SD) of the patients was 25.1 +/- 12.1 years (range, 12-56 years). Of 9 patients receiving phenytoin (PHT) monotherapy, 3 (33.3%) had gingival hypertrophy; 15 of 18 (83.3%) patients receiving PHT in combination with phenobarbital (PB) manifested the disorder. Traumatized anterior teeth were found in 26 (46.4%) patients with the males significantly more affected than females (p = 0.02). When the dental treatment needs were considered, 24 (42.9%) patients required dental prophylaxis with oral hygiene instruction, and an equal number required various types of restorative treatments. Only 13 patients (23.2%) had previously visited a dental clinic; the 43 (76.8%) who had never sought dental treatment claimed they did not see any need for it.
Our study showed an increased predilection to anterior dental injuries in patients with epilepsy as compared with the prevalence earlier reported for those without epilepsy in Nigeria (p = 0.00). There is a clear need for effective interaction between medical and dental practitioners in the management of epilepsy.

Ogunbodede, E.  2004.  HIV/AIDS situation in Africa, 2004/12/01. :352-360. Abstract

The HIV/AIDS pandemic marks a severe development crisis in Africa, which remains by far the worst affected region in the world. Forty-two million people now live with HIV/AIDS of which 29.4 million (70.0%) are from sub-Saharan Africa. Approximately 5 million new infections occurred in 2002 and 3.5 million (70.0%) of these were also from sub-Saharan Africa. The estimated number of children orphaned by AIDS living in the region is 11 million. In 2002, the epidemic claimed about 2.4 million lives in Africa, more than 70% of the 3.1 million deaths worldwide. Average life expectancy in sub-Saharan Africa is now 47 years, when it would have been 62 years without AIDS. HIV/AIDS stigma is still a major problem despite the extensive spread of the epidemic. A complex interaction of material, social i cultural and behavioural factors shape the nature, process and outcome of the epidemic in Africa. However, too many partners and unprotected sex appear to be at the core of the problem, Even if exceptionally effective prevention, treatment and care programmes take hold immediately the scale of the crisis means that the human and socio-economic toll will remain significant for many generations. Although 70% of people living with HIV/AIDS are in Africa, only 6,569 (4.7%) of the 140,736 scientific publica.tions on HIV/AIDS, from 1981 to 2000, are directly related to Africa. Effective responses to the epidemic require a multisectoral approach, including governments, the business sector and civil society.

Ogunbodede, E, Mickenautsch S, Rudolph M.  2000.  Oral Health Care in Refugee Situations: Liberian Refugees in Ghana, 2000/09/01. J Refug Stud. 13 Abstract

Oral health programmes for refugees should emphasize a Primary Health Care approach focusing on prevention, based on appropriate technology, and promoting involvement of the refugee community in the provision of services. This report describes a unique programme at the Liberian refugee camp Gomoa Buduburam, Central Region, Ghana. The programme resulted in the effective participation of a refugee community in oral health promotion, and empowerment of members of the community to take care of their own oral health. A comprehensive primary oral health care programme is essential for refugee camps, especially when the camp has become stable. This programme represents an approach to oral health promotion in refugee situations characterized by full community participation. It is recommended that UNHCR should accommodate oral health within the major health framework for refugee populations, including provisions for Community Oral Health Worker remuneration as well as equipment and material supply.

Ogunbodede, E, ANIZOBA E.  2012.  The Growth of Dental Training Institutions in Post-Independence Nigeria, 2012/06/21. Abstract

Objective: Nigeria with the current population estimated at 160 million is the most populous black-country in the world. One fifth of every African is a Nigerian. Although modern dentistry had been practiced in the country since 1907, the first dental school was not established until 1966. Apart from Dental Surgeons and Dental Technologists, all other cadre of oral health personnel are trained outside the university. The main objective of the present study is to assess the growth of these dental training institutions over 50 years, from 1960 when Nigeria attained independence to 2010.Method: A desk review of publications of the National Universities Commission, Faculties of Dentistry, and other relevant institutions was conducted. These were complimented with related Journal articles, and publications of the professional registration bodies.
Result: There were nine universities with dental programmes in Nigeria, all of which are fully funded by government. The first of these was established in 1966. Over the 50 years Institutions training Dentists had increased to eight. There were two institutions training Dental Technologists, one of which is a university. Dental Nurses/Technicians were trained in Schools of Health Technology and these had increased in line with creation of new states in the country. Political considerations rather than strategic plans played significant roles in the establishment and growth of these training institutions.
Conclusion: These findings have serious policy implications. Specific plans need to be in place for the establishment of training institutions and the development of oral health workforce in the country.

Ogunbodede, OS, Idowu HA, Odeyemi TI.  2020.  Students’ Union–Management relations and conflict resolution mechanisms in Obafemi Awolowo University, Nigeria. African Journal on Conflict Resolution. 20(1):103-131.ogunbodedeidowuodeyemi2020.pdf
Ogunbodede, E, Lawal O, Lamikanra A, N Okeke I, Rotimi O, A Rasheed A.  2002.  Helicobacter pylori in the dental plaque and gastric mucosa of dyspeptic Nigerian patients, 2002/07/01. Tropical gastroenterology : official journal of the Digestive Diseases Foundation. 23:127-33. Abstract

Presence of helicobacter pylori (H.Pylori) in the dental plaques may be associated with the presence of the same organism in gastric mucosa.To assess and compare the prevalence of H. pylori in dental plaques and gastric mucosa of dyspeptic Nigerians.
Sixty-six consecutive patients undergoing endoscopy for investigation of dyspepsia were included in the study. A predesigned questionnaire was used to collect information on socio-demographic and other factors. Each patient also had clinical dental examination. Dental plaque scrapping was collected before endoscopy for helicobacter pylori culture, and at endoscopy, two gastric biopsy specimens were taken for culture and histology.
The mean age (+/- SD) of the patients was 44.8 (+/- 17.4) years (range 5 to 80 years). The positivity rate of helicobacter pylori in gastric biopsy was 35 of 66 (53.0%) while the same for dental plaque was 46 of 66 (69.7%). The correlation (Spearman's) between gastric mucosa and dental plaque colonization with helicobactor pylori was significant (R = 0.30, P = 0.01). When concordant positivity of gastric biopsy culture and histology was taken as diagnostic, the sensitivity of dental plaque culture was found to be 82.9% and the specificity was 45.2%.
This study revealed that helicobactor pylori has a high prevalence in the dental plaque of the population that we have studied and may therefore be of potential relevance in screening for such infection.

Ogunbodede, E, Sheiham A.  1992.  Oral health promotion and health education programmes for Nigeria--policy guidelines, 1992/02/01. African dental journal : official publication of the Federation of African Dental Associations = Journal dentaire africain / FADA. 6:8-16. Abstract

Nigeria like other developing countries is presently faced with the arduous problem of coping with scarce resources to control existing and increasing oral disease levels. The World Health Organization has emphasized the importance of oral health promotion for initiating successful, effective, preventive oral health programmes. At present however, Nigeria is without formal oral health promotion and health education policies or programmes. In the "National Policy and Strategy to Achieve Health for All Nigerians" (Federal Ministry of Health 1986), no specific mention was made of oral health promotion or oral health education. The present paper therefore proposes definitive policy guidelines that will help in the development of coherent oral health promotion programmes for the country. The approach proposed tackles causes common to a number of chronic diseases and incorporates oral health into general health strategies.

Ogunbodede, E.  2005.  HIV/AIDS situation in Africa, 2005/01/01. International dental journal. 54:352-60. Abstract

The HIV/AIDS pandemic marks a severe development crisis in Africa, which remains by far the worst affected region in the world. Forty-two million people now live with HIV/AIDS of which 29.4 million (70.0%) are from sub-Saharan Africa. Approximately 5 million new infections occurred in 2002 and 3.5 million (70.0%) of these were also from sub-Saharan Africa. The estimated number of children orphaned by AIDS living in the region is 11 million. In 2002, the epidemic claimed about 2.4 million lives in Africa, more than 70% of the 3.1 million deaths worldwide. Average life expectancy in sub-Saharan Africa is now 47 years, when it would have been 62 years without AIDS. HIV/AIDS stigma is still a major problem despite the extensive spread of the epidemic. A complex interaction of material, social, cultural and behavioural factors shape the nature, process and outcome of the epidemic in Africa. However, too many partners and unprotected sex appear to be at the core of the problem, Even if exceptionally effective prevention, treatment and care programmes take hold immediately, the scale of the crisis means that the human and socio-economic toll will remain significant for many generations. Although 70% of people living with HIV/AIDS are in Africa, only 6,569 (4.7%) of the 140,736 scientific publications on HIV/AIDS, from 1981 to 2000, are directly related to Africa. Effective responses to the epidemic require a multisectoral approach, including governments, the business sector and civil society.

Ogunbodede, E.  1991.  Dental care: the role of Traditional Healers, 1991/02/01. World health forum. 12:443-4. Abstract
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Ogunbodede, E, Folayan M, Adedigba M.  2005.  Oral health-care workers and HIV infection control practices in Nigeria, 2005/08/01. Tropical doctor. 35:147-50. Abstract

The first case of HIV infection was reported in Nigeria in 1986. Since then, the prevalence has risen from less than 0.1% in 1987 to 5.8% in 2002, and an estimated 3.6 million Nigerians now live with HIV/AIDS. More than 40 oral manifestations of HIV infection have been recorded and between 70% and 90% of persons with HIV infection will have at least one oral manifestation at sometime during the course of their disease. Oral health-care workers (OHCWS) are expected to play active roles in the prevention and control of HIV/AIDS. In this study, a one-day workshop was organized for 64 oral health workers in Ile-Ife, Nigeria, focusing on the epidemiology of HIV/AIDS, the oral manifestations, control and prevention of HIV in a dental environment, oral care of the infected patient and the ethical, legal and social aspects of HIV/AIDS. Participants' knowledge and practices of infection control were assessed with an infection control checklist administered pre- and post-workshop. Sixty (90.8%) respondents believed that HIV/AIDS was not yet a problem in Nigeria, and 58 (90.6%) believed that drugs have been developed which can cure HIV infection and AIDS. The men complied more with waste disposal regulations than women (P = 0.010). Twenty-nine of 58 (50.0%) did not discard gloves which were torn, cut or punctured. Seven (12.1%) did not change gloves between patients' treatment. Conscious efforts should be made to train OHCWS on all aspects of HIV/AIDS prevention and care. It must never be assumed that adequate information will be acquired through tangential sources.

Ogunbodede, E, I Ugboko V, Ojo MA.  1997.  Oral malignances in Ile-Ife Nigeria, 1997/02/01. East African medical journal. 74:33-6. Abstract

Fifty nine patients with histologically confirmed cases of oral malignant neoplasia were included in this study. There was a male preponderance with the male to female ratio being 2.5 to 1.0. The average waiting period before presentation was 8.9 +/- 6.5 months (range: two to 24 months). Squamous cell carcinoma was the predominant variety, 50.8%, of all malignancies recorded. The alveolar ridge and the gingivae were the commonest sites accounting for 40.7% of all cases. Majority of the patients with squamous cell carcinoma, (80.8%), presented with stage IV of this disease. The pattern of oral malignancies in the population studied appears slightly different from earlier observations in Western Europe and Asia. The necessity to strengthen research on the epidemiology of the disease in Nigeria and other African countries is highlighted.

Ogunbodede, EO, Folayan MO, GO A.  1997.  Oral cancer: a review of the risk factors, diagnosis, prevention and management. Nigeria Medical Journal. 32(3):80-84.
Ogunbodede, E, Adamolekun B, Akintomide A.  1998.  Oral Health and Dental Treatment Needs in Nigerian Patients with Epilepsy, 1998/07/01. Epilepsia. 39:590-4. Abstract

We determined the prevalence of oral disorders and the dental treatment needs of outpatients with epilepsy.A questionnaire was administered to 56 consecutive patients (35 males, 21 females) presenting to an outpatient clinic. All patients underwent dental examinations. The clinical and diagnostic features of each patient's epilepsy were also obtained.
The mean age (+/-SD) of the patients was 25.1 +/- 12.1 years (range, 12-56 years). Of 9 patients receiving phenytoin (PHT) monotherapy, 3 (33.3%) had gingival hypertrophy; 15 of 18 (83.3%) patients receiving PHT in combination with phenobarbital (PB) manifested the disorder. Traumatized anterior teeth were found in 26 (46.4%) patients with the males significantly more affected than females (p = 0.02). When the dental treatment needs were considered, 24 (42.9%) patients required dental prophylaxis with oral hygiene instruction, and an equal number required various types of restorative treatments. Only 13 patients (23.2%) had previously visited a dental clinic; the 43 (76.8%) who had never sought dental treatment claimed they did not see any need for it.
Our study showed an increased predilection to anterior dental injuries in patients with epilepsy as compared with the prevalence earlier reported for those without epilepsy in Nigeria (p = 0.00). There is a clear need for effective interaction between medical and dental practitioners in the management of epilepsy.

Ogundapo, SS, Soniran OT, Vining-Ogu CI, Ngobidi KC, Obasi NA, Olugbue VU, Adegbola JA, Ogundapo AF.  2021.  Data on pilot assessment of efficacy of artemether lumefantrine when co-administered with ciprofloxacin in malaria-typhoid co-infected patients. Data in brief. 34:106732.: Elsevier Abstract
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