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Journal Article
Adewinbi, S, Taleatu B, Maphiri V, Fasakin O, OMOTOSO E, Oyedotun K, Manyala N.  2021.  Characterization of two-way fabricated hybrid metal-oxide nanostructured electrode materials for photovoltaic and miniaturized supercapacitor applications, 2021/07/27. 119:106699. Abstract

Portable electronic devices require a small volume self-powered energy system that can combine fabrication of energy harvesting and storage devices in one plane. This study focuses on fabricating novel all-oxide photovoltaic and supercapacitor devices based on MoO 3 , V 2 O 5 , and Co x O y thin electrodes prepared by a two-electrode cell arrangement. The fabricated devices were tested using solar simulator and potentiostat at ambient temperature. The power conversion efficiencies of the fabricated photovoltaic devices were found in the range of 0.17-0.39% depending on buffer layer characteristics. It therefore suggests that V 2 O 5 and MoO 3 can buffer photovoltaic processes by lowering the conduction band offset in the proximate Co x O y absorber. Pseudocapacitive behavior of MoO 3 /Co x O y ||MoO 3 /Co x O y and V 2 O 5 /Co x O y ||V 2 O 5 /Co x O y planar devices showed that they delivered maximum specific areal capacity values of 0.694 and 0.778 μAhcm − 2 respectively at discharge current density of 0.1 mAcm − 2. They also showed considerably low reduction in energy density (about 38.7%) even at a remarkable increase in power density of about 450% (at a high current density of 1.0 mAcm − 2). In addition, the symmetric microsupercapacitors showed excellent retention of capacity even after 5000 cycles. These results generally indicate the reliability of the fabricated devices in the development of portable electronic components for energy application.

Folayan, M, Olanrewaju I, El Tantawi M, Brown B, M. Aly N, Ezechi O, Abeldaño G, Ara E, Ayanore M, Ellakany P, Gaffar B, Al-Khanati N, Idigbe I, Ishabiyi A, Jafer M, Khan A, Khalid Z, Lawal F, Lusher J, Nguyen A.  2021.  Factors Associated with Financial Security, Food Security and Quality of Daily Lives of Residents in Nigeria during the First Wave of the COVID-19 Pandemic, 2021/07/27. 18:7925. Abstract
Folayan, M, Obiyan M, El Tantawi M, Kemoli A, Al-Batayneh O, Gaffar B, Schroth R.  2021.  An ecological study on the association between early childhood caries and intimate partner violence in 20 low- and middle-income countries: 2007-2017, 2021/07/26. 4:39. Abstract
Sarfo, F, Akpa O, Ovbiagele B, Akpalu A, Wahab K, Komolafe M, Obiako R, Owolabi L, Osaigbovo G, Jenkins C, Ogbole G, Fakunle A, Tiwari H, Arulogun O, Arnett D, Asowata O, Ogah O, Akinyemi R, Owolabi M.  2021.  Influence of age on links between major modifiable risk factors and stroke occurrence in West Africa, 2021/07/01. 428:117573. Abstract
Adewole, K, Ogunfowokan A, Olodu M.  2021.  Influence of Health Literacy on Health Promoting Behaviour of Adolescents with and without Obesity, 2021/07/01. 15:100342. Abstract

BackgroundLearning has been associated with human behaviour, and health literacy is vital in an individual’s health promotion and maintenance activities.
This study aimed at comparing the health literacy and health-promoting behaviour of adolescents with and without obesity, and to also identify the association between health literacy and health-promoting behaviour of these two groups of adolescents.
A concurrent mixed-method design was adopted and the study was conducted among150 adolescents with obesity and 150 adolescents without obesity from 15 private secondary schools in Osun State, Nigeria. A structured self-administered questionnaire and an in-depth interview guide were used to collect data on their health literacy levels and health-promoting behaviour.
The findings showed that adolescents without obesity had a higher level of health literacy (70%) compared to their counterparts with obesity (59%). More than half (55.3%) of those with obesity and 35% of those without obesity scored low on health-promoting behaviour scale. Also, there was a significant relationship between health literacy and health-promoting behaviour among adolescents with obesity (r = 0.29; p = 0.001) and those without obesity (r = 0.85, p =0.015).
The study concluded that adolescents with obesity had lower level of health-promoting behaviour despite their high level of health literacy, compared to those without obesity. Irrespective of the adolescent’s obesity status, their health-promoting behaviour is significantly associated with their health literacy. Implication for school nursing practice is documented.

Oloniniyi, I, Ibigbami O, Amiola A, Esan O, Esan O.  2021.  First Episode Psychosis during COVID-19 Pandemic: A Case Series, 2021/06/26. 38:599-603. Abstract

Introduction:Neuropsychiatric events are often associated with viral pandemics. The unexpected turn of events the world over since the onset of the coronavirus pandemic may serve as stressors which can trigger or worsen mental disorders particularly psychosis. There is little or no reports about acute psychosis on the background of this current global pandemic particularly in the African context. The aim of this article describes a case series of acute schizophrenia-like disorder with COVID-19 related psychotic themes in the context of the current pandemic.
Materials and methods:
We present a case series of 2 patients with first episode psychotic illnesses during the COVID-19 pandemic. Both patients presented at the mental health outpatient clinic of the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.
Two patients with no previous history of mental illness presented with COVID-19 delusional themes and odd behaviours. Mental state examination revealed abnormalities in behaviour, thought system, perception and cognition. ICD10 diagnosis of Acute and Transient Psychotic disorder was made in both patients. There were no abnormal physical health findings and symptoms resolved with the use of antipsychotics.
Information on the COVID-19 pandemic may influence the content of psychotic experiences among the general population. A high index of suspicion and acute services are important to ensure prompt intervention and promotion of community mental health. Clinicians need to be well informed to be able to identify what deviates from the norm, and to be able to provide prompt intervention.

Oladejo, AS, Bolaji AO, Okuniyi EO, Gidado RM.  2021.  Segregation of Genes Controlling Seed Coat Color in Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] Walp)), 2021/06/05. Genetic and Biodiversity Journal. :198-206. Abstract

Aims: To evaluate, identify and select superior genotypes with better agronomic traits with respect to insect resistance and yield components for the development of improved cowpea varieties.Study Design: The plants were raised using completely randomized design (CRD).
Place and Duration of Study: Screen house of the Department of Botany, Obafemi Awolowo
University, Ile-Ife, Nigeria, between July 2017 and January 2018.
Methodology: A total of 67 Vigna accessions consisting of 36 V. vexillata and 31 V. unguiculata species were evaluated and the quantitative and qualitative attributes of the various accessions studied were documented. The data obtained in the study were subjected to univariate analysis involving descriptive statistics, the General Linear Model (GLM); and as well as multivariate analysis involving Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The differences among means of each variable were tested using the Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT) at ˂0.05 using System Analysis Software (SAS) version 9.13. Pearson Correlation Coefficient was also used to test the correlation among the quantitative attributes of the varieties studied.
Results: The results of the investigation showed that there was significant variation in most of the quantitative attributes of the species studied though many of the qualitative vegetative attributes were considerably uniform. The Principal Component Analysis showed that some of the important traits that contributed significantly to the variation were number of days to seedling emergence, plant height, leaf length, leaf breadth, petiole length, pod length, pod breadth, seed length, seed breadth, number of seeds per pod and number of locules.
Conclusion: From the findings obtained in this study, it could be concluded that the desirable
traits of Tvnu1249 (V. vexillata) such as early maturity, and Tvnu72 (V. vexillata) with high percentage seed set and resistance to flower bud thrips could be transferred into Sanzi and Ifebrown (V. unguiculata varieties) with larger seed sizes and high percentage seed set through
hybridization and other breeding techniques.

Faniyi, I, Olofinjana B, Fasakin O, Ajenifuja E, Alo F, Eleruja M, Ajayi E.  2021.  Effects of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide on thermal and mechanical properties of expanded polystyrene-based composites, 2021/06/01. 44 Abstract

Graphene oxide (GO) acts as an insulator but when reduced to reduced graphene oxide (RGO), it has high heat storage capacity. This can result in lowering the phase change temperature when embedded in a material such as expanded polystyrene (EPS), thus making it a good heat-resistance material. In this study, the thermal and the mechanical effects of GO and RGOs over EPS were analysed. GO was synthesized using modified Hummer’s method, while the reduction process was taken through different routes using three different reductants: hydrazine (RGO-HZ), ascorbic acid (RGO-AA) and the extract of Amaranthus hybridus (RGO-AH). The same content of graphite and its derivatives were separately and chemically bonded together with EPS forming composites (i.e., graphite composite, GO composite, RGO-HZ composite, RGO-AA composite and RGO-AH composite) and cast on a mould at room temperature to form a dog-bone shape. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential thermal analysis, scanning electron microscopy and mechanical tests were conducted on ordinary EPS and on each of the composite samples. The results showed a significant enhancement of thermal and mechanical properties of the composites over ordinary EPS.

Mahmoud, B, Mirghni A, Oyedotun K, Fasakin O, Manyala N.  2021.  Nanoplatelets ammonium nickel-cobalt phosphate graphene foam composite as novel electrode material for hybrid supercapacitors, 2021/06/01. 883:160897. Abstract

Nanoplatelets NH4(NiCo)PO4·H2O and NH4(NiCo)PO4·H2O/GF composites were synthesized through a hydrothermal approach and used as actively positive electrode for hybrid supercapacitor. Electrochemical performances of the samples were carried out in both the 3and 2-electrode measurements in 1 M KOH solution. The composite NH4(NiCo)PO4·H2O/GF exhibited an improved specific capacity of 111 mAh g⁻¹ over the pristine NH4(NiCo)PO4·H2O material with a 100 mAh g⁻¹, which was obtained at 0.5 Ag⁻¹. Moreover, an assembled hybrid device NH4(NiCo)PO4·H2O/GF//AC revealed maximum specific energy of 47 Wh kg⁻¹ and specific power of 468 W/kg at 0.5 Ag⁻¹. The device was subjected to a long-term stability test of over 10,000 GCD cycles and could retain about 70% of its initial capacity and also proved a columbic efficiency of 99.8% at 10.0 A g⁻¹. Interestingly, the device could preserve a 1.14 V of its initial potential window of 1.4 V after being subjected to a 72 h self-discharge test, showing an efficiency of 81.4%. Based on the results discussed on this work, the NH4(NiCo)PO4·H2O/GF composite could be an excellent candidate as future energy storage material, specifically supercapacitors.

Chen, KJ, Duangthip D, Gao S, Huang F, Anthonappa R, Oliveira B, Turton B, Durward C, El Tantawi M, Attia D, Heima M, Muthu S, Maharani D, Folayan M, Phantumvanit P, Sitthisettapong T, Innes N, Crystal Y, Ramos-Gomez F, Chu C-H.  2021.  Oral Health Policies to Tackle the Burden of Early Childhood Caries: A Review of 14 Countries/Regions, 2021/06/01. 2:670154. Abstract
Nguyen, A, Brown B, El Tantawi M, Ndembi N, Okeibunor J, Mohammed A, Folayan M.  2021.  Time to Scale-up Research Collaborations to Address the Global Impact of COVID-19 – A Commentary, 2021/06/01. 8:277-280. Abstract
Oyedotun, K, Mirghn A, Fasakin O, Mahmoud B, Tarimo D, Manyala N.  2021.  Activated Carbon Derived from Biomass-Waste Okra As High-Performance Electrodes for Use in Supercapacitors, 2021/05/30. MA2021-01:495-495. Abstract
Soyoye, D, Kolawole B, Ikem R, Ugwu E, Soyoye O, Owolabi F, Anozie C, Amjo O, Ogundele O.  2021.  Screening for Diabetes Mellitus and Hypertension in Ile-Ife - A World Diabetes Day Experience, 2021/05/29. 38:434-438. Abstract

Background and objectives:Non-communicable diseases have emerged as major public health concerns in developing nations, where communicable diseases used to be the major contributor to the public health burden. Diabetes and hypertension contribute significantly to this menace, and they are largely undiagnosed in the affected population. We determined the prevalence of previously diagnosed and undiagnosed hypertension and diabetes mellitus in adult Nigerians.
Participants who presented in response to advertisement for the study and gave informed consent were recruited using convenience sampling. Data was collected using a proforma to obtain salient medical and social history. Anthropometric and blood pressure measurements were done. Capillary blood was taken for initial glucose measurements. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was subsequently done in non-diabetics with elevated blood glucose to confirm the diagnosis of diabetes.
One hundred and thirty-six participants with age range 24 - 90 years were recruited for the study. Participants were mainly females (61.8%). Prevalence of diabetes among study participants was 19.9% (previously diagnosed -16.9% vs undiagnosed - 3.0%) with higher occurrence among males. Hypertension was found in 50.7% of participants; 28.7% were on treatment for hypertension, while 22.0% were newly diagnosed. Diabetes was associated with older age and elevated systolic blood pressure while hypertension was associated with older age, obesity and elevated blood glucose.
This study showed a high occurrence of diabetes and hypertension among adult Nigerians; hence efforts to address these should be intensified. Targeted screening of people at risk for non-communicable diseases is an added benefit.

Wuraola, F, Famurewa B, Olasehinde O, Odujoko O, Adesina O, Aregbesola S.  2021.  From the breast to the upper jaw: A rare case of metastatic breast cancer, 2021/05/11. 14:60-63. Abstract

Breast cancer is the commonest malignancy in women globally. Metastasesof advanced breast carcinoma to bones, lungs and liver are well known but
spread to maxillary bone presenting as maxillary sinus and palatal swelling is
rare. We present a case of advanced breast carcinoma in a female Nigerian with
clinical, radiological and histopathological features of lung and right maxillary
bone metastases. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of
metastatic breast cancer to the lungs and maxilla in Nigeria. The debilitating
sequelae of advanced untreated breast carcinoma in a resource limited setting
with suboptimal comprehensive cancer care are highlighted.

Braimah, R, Oladejo T, Olarinoye T, Adetoye A, Osho P, Ramat O, Braimah, R.O..  2021.  A multidisciplinary approach to the management of temporomandibular joint ankylosis in a sickle-cell anemia patient in a resource-limited setting, 2021/05/04. Abstract
Borisade, T, Odiwe A, Akinwumiju A, Orimoogunje O, Uwalaka N.  2021.  Assessing the impacts of land use on riparian vegetation dynamics in Osun State, Nigeria, 2021/05/01. 5:100099. Abstract

The existence of riparian vegetation is greatly threatened by change in land uses in Nigeria and information on historical management of land use which influences riparian vegetation dynamics is critical to the conservation of plants species diversity. This information is poorly understood especially in Nigeria and by extension in Africa. This study therefore assessed the areas covered by riparian forests in Osun State, Nigeria in order to identify the main drivers of its decline using optical remote sensing data. It also assessed the availability and distribution of the riparian forests over three decades (1986-2016) using Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM). Results showed that the riparian forests covered 546.18km² (6.40%) with about 308riparian forests distributed across the state in 1986 but had declined to 176 by 2016. Three decades later, areas covered by riparian forests decreased to171.69km² (2.01%), representing a decline of about 69% and was predicted a rapid transition to disturbed lands. Human activities such as logging, farming, grazing and construction have greatly influenced the riparian vegetation cover with obvious decline in extent, distribution and quality. Observation from our case study showed that the disappearance of these forests is taken place at a rate that is faster than the predicted level of the Nigerian riparian forest loss by 2040. Notably deforestation, agriculture and urbanization are the main drivers of this decline, of the African gallery forests.

Orimoogunje, O, Olufemi A, Dada E, Adekunle S, Nene E-O, Isioma N.  2021.  Dynamism of Landscape Transformation in Ibiono-Ibom, Akwa-Ibom State, Nigeria, 2021/05/01. 14:19-38. Abstract

Studies have shown that information on landscape transformation is an important benchmark data set because of its value as an environmental change indicator. Therefore, dynamism of landscape transformation over a 34-year period are analysed for a case study in Ibiono-Ibom, Akwa-Ibom State, Nigeria. The study adopted a mixed method consisting of remote sensing and GIS-based analysis, and semi-structured interviews covering 400 households while factors contributing to landscape structures and changes are studied. The results point out three main driving factors responsible for the landscape transformation in the study area: agricultural practices which lead to intensification of forest resources, riparian vegetation, vegetated wetlands and non-vegetated wetlands; urbanization which modifies the structure and morphology of the landscape, and finally, population growth directly related to massive infrastructural development which encroached on all other land spaces. GIS-based analysis of remotely-sensed data showed that built-up area had increased by 7535.2 ha between 1986 and 2020; shrub and arable land by 1343.9 ha and light forest decreased by 4998.3 ha. While bare-land reduced by 1522.1 ha; vegetated wetland reduced by 1092 ha; water body coverage reduced by 168 ha and non-vegetated wetland size also reduced by 2029.4 ha. Analysis of household survey results revealed that the perceptions of respondents validate the observed patterns during the remotely-sensed data analysis phase of the research, with 54 % (n=400) of respondents reporting a decline in agricultural land use, and 19.3 % (n=400) observing a decline in forest areas in the study area. Furthermore, agricultural intensification, urban development, timber exploitation, firewood collection and increase in settlements were identified as the proximate drivers of these observed landscape transformation dynamics in the study area. The study concluded that the variation in landscape transformation of the study area are clear indication of the extent of biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation in the study area.

Olorunkosebi, A, Eleruja M, Adedeji A, Olofinjana B, Fasakin O, Omotoso E, Oyedotun K, Ajayi E, Manyala N.  2021.  Optimization of Graphene oxide through various Hummers' methods and comparative reduction using green approach, 2021/05/01. 117:108456. Abstract

Graphene oxide (GO) was synthesized using three techniques and was reduced using two reducers' extracts from neem and pumpkin leaves. The obtained GOs and RGOs were characterized using Fourier infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, UV–visible spectrophotometry, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results revealed that all the three methods used are capable of producing GO with various levels of oxidation. FTIR spectra of RGOs showed that the CO signature of GOs at 1730–1740 cm⁻¹ were eliminated after reduction. Other characterization results of the RGOs revealed that both the neem and pumpkin extracts are capable of reducing the synthesized GO. With all these, it can be concluded that the extracts of neem and pumpkin are good reducing agents. The neem and pumpkin extracts, which are ecofriendly can replace the use of hazardous chemicals that are not ecofriendly.

El Tantawi, M, Folayan M, Oginni O, Adeniyi A, Mapayi B, Yassin R, Chukwumah N, Sam-Agudu N.  2021.  Association between mental health, caries experience and gingival health of adolescents in sub-urban Nigeria, 2021/04/30. 21 Abstract
Omeje, U, Famurewa B, Agbara R, Fomete B, Suleiman A, Bardi M, Owobu T.  2021.  Mandibular fractures in Kano, Northwest Nigeria: aetiology and pattern of presentation, 2021/04/30. Abstract

Background:Mandibular fractures are universal in distribution but its aetiologies and presentation patterns differ from one country to another because of varying socioeconomic, cultural and geographical factors. We analysed the aetiological factors and presentation patterns of mandibular fractures in a tertiary hospital at Nigeria's second largest city.
Patients with isolated mandibular fractures at Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano were prospectively reviewed over a 12-months period. Patients' demographic information and fracture characteristics (aetiology, site, pattern and number of fracture) were recorded and analysed.
One hundred and forty eight patients presented with 180 mandibular fractures. There were eight fold higher men with mandibular fractures than women (M: F = 8.3:1) with highest incidence in third decade of life. Road traffic accidents (84.46%) was the major aetiology while iatrogenic fracture (0.68%) was found in one patient. Mandibular body was the most fractured site (41.11%) with parasymphyseal and angle regions accounting for 27.78% and 23.89% of total recorded fractures respectively.
Mandibular fractures in Kano, Northwest Nigeria occurred predominantly in men in the third decade and are mostly caused by road traffic accidents. The majority of these fractures involved the mandibular body.

Folayan, M, El Tantawi M, M. Aly N, Adeniyi A, Oziegbe E, Arowolo O, Alade M, Mapayi B, Chukwumah N, Oginni O, Sam-Agudu N.  2021.  Associations between a history of sexual abuse and dental anxiety, caries experience and oral hygiene status among adolescents in sub-urban South West Nigeria, 2021/04/19. 21 Abstract