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Odetoyin, BW, Hofmann J, Aboderin AO, Okeke IN.  2015.  Diarrhoeagenic {{Escherichia}} Coli in Mother-Child {{Pairs}} in {{Ile}}-{{Ife}}, {{South Western Nigeria}}, dec. BMC Infectious Diseases. 16, Number 1: {BioMed Central} Abstract

Background: Diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) pathotypes are among the most common bacterial causes of morbidity and mortality in young children. These pathogens are not sought routinely and capacity for their detection is limited in Africa. We investigated the distribution and dissemination of DEC in 126 children paired with their mothers in a Nigerian community. Methods: A total of 861 E. coli were isolated from 126 children with diarrhoea and their mothers. Antimicrobial susceptibility of each isolate was determined by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique. All the isolates were screened for DEC markers by multiplex PCR. Genetic relatedness of DEC strains was determined by flagellin typing and Insertion element 3 (IS3)-based PCR. Results: DEC were identified from 35.7 % of individuals with the most common pathotype being shiga toxin-producing E. coli (42, 16.7 %). Identical pathotypes were found in 13 (10.3 %) of the mother-child pairs and in three of these strains from mothers and their children showed identical genetic signatures. Over 90 % of DEC isolates were resistant to ampicillin, sulphonamide, tetracycline, streptomycin or trimethoprim, but only 9 (7.2 %) were ciprofloxacin resistant Conclusion: The data suggest that healthy mothers are asymptomatic reservoirs of multiply-resistant strains that are pathogenic in their children and there are instances in which identical strains are found in mother-child pairs.

Odetoyin, BW, Olaniran O, Afolayan DO, Aderibigbe IA, Alaka O, Onanuga AA.  2018.  Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in an Apparently Healthy Population and Its Relation to Hypertension, aug. African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology. 19:282., Number 4: {AJCEM Life line Publishers} Abstract

Background Hypertension is a major health problem in sub-Sahara Africa. Several studies have suggested a role of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) in the aetiology of hypertension, but there is a dearth of information on this association in Africa where the burden of hypertension is high. We investigated the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria, its association with hypertension and determined the antibiotic resistance patterns of implicated bacterial isolates in an urban community of Ile-Ife. Methods One hundred and seventy-four apparently healthy individuals were investigated for ASB. Relevant information was obtained from them with standard proforma. Their Blood pressure was measured with a standard mercury sphygmomanometer. All samples were processed on cysteine lactose electrolyte deficient medium and chocolate agar. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion technique. Results Fifty (28.7%) individuals were positive for ASB. ASB was commonly detected among the female subjects ({$\chi$}2=5.619; p-value = 0.01777), and among individuals in the age group of 50-59 years. Those that were hypertensive were two and a half times more likely to have ASB (Odd ratio=2.5; p-value=0.01369; CI=1.19-5.35). The highest percentage of hypertensive female participants with ASB was found in the age group of 30-39 years (33.3%) while among the male participants, the highest percentage was found in the age group of 60-69 years (9.5%). Escherichia coli (n=13; 26%) and Staphylococcus aureus (n=13; 26%) were the commonest organisms implicated in ASB. The majority of the isolates ({$>$}90%) were multidrug resistant. Isolates of Escherichia coli were commonly resistant to ampicillin (83.3%), ceftriaxone (72.7%) and cefepime (66.7%). Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus were all (100%) resistant to erythromycin, cloxacillin and streptomycin. All isolates were least resistant to cotrimoxazole ({$<$}8%). Conclusion Women as well as men in the age group of 50-59 years were more likely to develop ASB. ASB could be contributing to the rising incidence of hypertension in this environment. Co-occurrence of hypertension and ASB portends a grave problem for apparently healthy individuals in this environment.

Odetoyin, BW, Hofmann J, Aboderin AO, Okeke IN.  2015.  Diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli in mother-child Pairs in Ile-Ife, South Western Nigeria. BMC infectious diseases. 16:28., Number 1: BioMed Central Abstract
Odetoyin, B, Adeola B, Olaniran O.  2020.  Frequency and {{Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns}} of {{Bacterial Species Isolated}} from the {{Body Surface}} of the {{Housefly}} ({{Musca}} Domestica) in {{Akure}}, {{Ondo State}}, {{Nigeria}}. Iranian Journal of Arthropod-Borne Diseases. 14:88–96.: {Tehran University of Medical Sciences} Abstract

Background: The emergence and spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria has become a serious problem worldwide. Houseflies are potential carriers of pathogenic and resistant bacteria and could be contributing to the global spread of these strains in the environments.We investigated the prevalence and antimicrobial resistant profiles of bacteria isolated from houseflies in Akure. Methods: Twenty-five houseflies were captured by a sterile nylon net from the slaughterhouse, garbage dump, human house, hospital, and eatery from 9:00am to 1:00pm when the flies were active and transported immediately to the labor\dbend atory in sterile containers for processing. Bacterial loads were enumerated by serial dilution and plating on nutrient agar and selective media. Bacteria species were isolated by conventional isolation technique. Antibiotic susceptibility test was determined by the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique. Results: Sixty-seven bacterial species were isolated from 25 samples that were collected. The predominant bacterial species was Escherichia coli (n= 31, 45%), followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (n= 17, 25%), Staphylococcus aureus (n=11, 16%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n= 3, 4.3%). The bacterial load of the samples ranged from 9.7× 105CFU/mL to 1.65× 106CFU/mL. The results revealed that all isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella spp, and Proteus mi\dbend rabilis were resistant to streptomycin and cotrimoxazole, augmentin and amoxicillin respectively. None of the S. aureus iso\dbend lates was resistant to cotrimoxazole, chloramphenicol, sparfloxacin, augmentin, and ofloxacin. All isolates were multi-drug resistant. Conclusion: House flies that were collected from the slaughterhouse, garbage dump, human house, hospital, and eatery may participate in the dispersal of pathogenic and resistant bacteria in the study environment

Odetoyin, B, Aboderin A, Ikem R, Kolawole B, Oyelese A.  2008.  Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in Patients with Diabetes {{Mellitus}} in {{Ile}}-{{Ife}}, {{South}}-{{West}}, {{Nigeria}}. East African medical journal. 85:18–23. Abstract

To investigate the prevalence and associates of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) in a sample of Nigerian diabetic patients. Cross-sectional descriptive and analytic study. The Wesley Guild Hospital and Ife State Hospital, both units of Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. One hundred and thirty five diabetic patients and 57 non-diabetic patients as controls. Demographic parameters of participants were recorded. Significant bacteriuria was determined for each of the mid-stream urine specimen obtained from all the subjects. Organisms isolated were identified and evaluated for antibiotic susceptibility patterns. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of ASB in the two groups. Prevalence of ASB was 16% and 3.5% in the diabetic patients and control respectively (p=0.03). Demographic parameters except age were not related to the presence of ASB. ASB was found in 54.4% of diabetic patients with poor glycaemia control compared with 2.9% in diabetics with good glycaemia control (p = 0.006). Organisms associated with ASB were Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella sp, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis, however the most predominant was Staphylococcus aureus. These organisms were largely resistant to the common antibiotics tested such as cotrimoxazole and gentamicin but susceptible to nitrofurantoin. The prevalence of ASB is high in diabetic patients and poor glucose control can be considered a predisposing factor.

Odetoyin, B.  2015.  The {{Role}} of {{Methicillin}}-{{Resistant Staphylococcus}} Aureus in {{Clinical}} Infections in {{Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex}}, {{Ile}}-{{Ife}}, {{South Western Nigeria}}. Journal of Microbiology & Experimentation. 2, Number 2 Abstract

This study determined the prevalence of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) from 246 clinical samples collected at a tertiary care hospital, its antimicrobial susceptibility, spectrum of infections and the associated risk factors. Standard procedures were used for isolation, screening, and susceptibility testing. The result showed that 41 (40.2%) out of 102 S. aureus isolated were methicillin-resistant while 61 (59.8%) were methicillin-sensitive. The prevalence rate of MRSA for male and female group was 37.3% and 43.1% respectively. Thirty (73.2%) methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates were obtained from inpatients while 11 (26.8%) were from outpatients. MRSA were significantly isolated from the Orthopaedic ward (OR=3.36; P=0.031) and the antenatal ward (OR=8.33; P=0.037). High resistance rates were exhibited by MRSA isolates to cefotaxime (102, 79.4%) and clindamycin (102, 49%) but had low resistance rates to gentamicin (102, 27.5%) and chloramphenicol (n=102, 28.4%). MRSA were more significantly resistant to gentamicin ({$\chi$}2=12.284; p=0.0001), clindamycin ({$\chi$}2=20.234; p=0.0001) and cefotaxime ({$\chi$}2=13.812; p=0.0002) than MSSA. Thirtytwo (78%) out of 41 MRSA isolated were multidrug resistant. All isolates (MRSA and MSSA) were susceptible to vancomycin with MIC values ranging from 2.1 to 0.12 \textmu g/ml. This study showed a high prevalence of MRSA in clinical infections that were resistant to treatment options in OAUTHC, Ile-Ife. Being in the antenatal and orthopaedic wards is a predictor of MRSA infections in the hospital. In spite of reports that vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus aureus is increasing, it is yet to be a problem in the hospital and vancomycin remains a drug of choice for the treatment of MRSA and multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus infections.

Odetoyin, BW, Labar AS, Lamikanra A, Aboderin AO, Okeke IN.  2017.  Classes 1 and 2 integrons in faecal Escherichia coli strains isolated from mother-child pairs in Nigeria. PloS one. 12:e0183383., Number 8: Public Library of Science Abstract
Odetoyin, BW, Labar AS, Lamikanra A, Aboderin AO, Okeke IN.  2017.  Classes 1 and 2 Integrons in Faecal {{Escherichia}} Coli Strains Isolated from Mother-Child Pairs in {{Nigeria}}, aug. PLOS ONE. 12(Nübel, Ulrich, Ed.).:e0183383., Number 8: {Public Library of Science} Abstract

Background Antimicrobial resistance among enteric bacteria in Africa is increasingly mediated by integrons on horizontally acquired genetic elements. There have been recent reports of such elements in invasive pathogens across Africa, but very little is known about the faecal reservoir of integron-borne genes. Methods and findings We screened 1098 faecal Escherichia coli isolates from 134 mother-child pairs for integron cassettes by PCR using primers that anneal to the 5' and 3' conserved ends of the cassette regions and for plasmid replicons. Genetic relatedness of isolates was determined by flagellin and multi-locus sequence typing. Integron cassettes were amplified in 410 (37.5%) isolates and were significantly associated with resistance to trimethoprim and multiple resistance. Ten cassette combinations were found in class 1 and two in class 2 integrons. The most common class 1 cassette configurations were single aadA1 (23.4%), dfrA7 (18.3%) and dfrA5 (14.4%). Class 2 cassette configurations were all either dfrA1-satIaadA1 (n = 31, 7.6%) or dfrA1-satI (n = 13, 3.2%). A dfr cassette was detected in 294 (31.1%) of trimethoprim resistant strains and an aadA cassette in 242 (23%) of streptomycin resistant strains. Strains bearing integrons carried a wide range of plasmid replicons of which FIB/Y (n = 169; 41.2%) was the most frequently detected. Nine isolates from five different individuals carried the dfrA17-aadA5-bearing ST69 clonal group A (CGA). The same integron cassette combination was identified from multiple distinct isolates within the same host and between four mother-child pairs. Conclusions Integrons are important determinants of resistance in faecal E. coli. Plasmids in integroncontaining strains may contribute to dispersing resistance genes. There is a need for

Odetunji, OA, Kehinde OO.  2005.  Computer simulation of fuzzy control system for gari fermentation plant. Journal of Food Engineering. 68:197–207., Number 2: Elsevier Abstract
Odewale, DA, Adeyemi OO, Adepoju BM.  2020.  Personnel Utilization: A Major Challenge in Nigerian Local Government System. Canadian Social Science. 16(8):9-15.abstract.docx
Odeyemi, TI, Abioro T.  2019.  Digital Technologies, Online Engagement and Parliament-Citizen Relations in Nigeria and South Africa. Perspectives on the Legislature and the Prospects of Accountability in Nigeria and South Africa. (Fagbadebo, Omololu, Ruffin, Fayth, Eds.).:217–232., Cham: Springer International Publishing Abstract

As an institution of governance, the parliament is the soul of democratic societies. The parliament typifies the presence of the people in the running of governmental activity. It monitors the actions of public officials towards ensuring adherence to initiatives and measures that advance the people's well-being. Relations between parliamentarians and citizens are, thus, critical on two fronts. Parliament – citizen relations are important in ensuring that elected parliamentarians are responsive to the desires of their constituents; and enable the people to hold their elected representatives accountable. In bridging communication gaps between the people and lawmakers, the Internet, social media and mobile phones, as digital technologies, have prospects in enabling the desired level of citizen engagement critical to democratic practice. This chapter explores, in comparative terms, the use of digital technologies by the national parliaments in Africa's two largest economies, Nigeria and South Africa. It examines the extent to which digital technologies are used in facilitating parliament – citizen relations in the two countries and how this connects with citizens' demands of accountability on national parliaments, and links between elected representatives and their constituents. The paper draws on data obtained through measurement of the online resources, especially websites and social media pages, of the parliaments. The chapter contributes to frameworks on how digital technologies can enhance parliament – citizen relations and good governance in sub-Saharan Africa.

Odeyemi, TI, Obiyan SA.  2018.  Digital policing technologies and democratic policing: Will the internet, social media and mobile phone enhance police accountability and police–citizen relations in Nigeria? International Journal of Police Science & Management. 20:97-108., Number 2 AbstractWebsite

The police are expected to perform functions critical to relations between the government and citizens in democratic societies. However, in Nigeria, the reality is that the police organisation suffers limitations that undermine effective and democratic policing. Although the Nigeria Police Force has a long and chequered history, its services are dogged by challenges including adversarial police–citizen relations and mutual suspicion and police misconduct. To address these problems and enhance policing, the Nigeria Police Force has deployed digital technologies through a Complaint Response Unit [later renamed the Public Complaint Rapid Response Unit (PCRRU)]. The PCRRU allows the public to connect with the police through dedicated phone numbers for calls and SMS, and a round-the-clock presence on Twitter, Facebook, WhatsApp, Blackberry Messenger and a mobile application. Although this initiative often draws attention and commendation, it also raises doubts about sustenance and utility value. Drawing on David Easton’s input–output nexus as a theoretical underpinning on the one hand, and data sourced through expert opinion interviews and web measurement on the other hand, this article investigates how these digital policing technologies, through the PCRRU, enhance efforts at mutually rewarding police–citizen relations and police accountability, as requisites of democratic policing, in Nigeria. The findings expand discussion on the dimensions of Nigeria’s police–citizen relations and the potentials of technology in promoting positive outcomes. The findings also suggest means through which police managers can optimise technology in ways that aid strategic efforts at improving public security.

Odeyemi, TI, Abati OO.  2021.  When disconnected institutions serve connected publics: subnational legislatures and digital public engagement in Nigeria. The Journal of Legislative Studies. 27:357-380., Number 3: Routledge AbstractWebsite

ABSTRACTIn this article, the authors argue that for Nigerian subnational parliaments to improve their public image, public understanding of their roles, and to be more transparent and inclusive, they must improve digital engagement practices. This is because the majority of citizens are active online, articulating political conversations on many issues, including the conduct and performance of public institutions and officials. Also, subnational parliaments are ‘closer to the people’ yet are still perceived to be ‘closed’ institutions, while exercising ‘power of the purse’ directly and indirectly over nearly half of all nationally generated revenue. Drawing on content analysis of parliamentary websites and social media (Facebook, Twitter, Instagram and YouTube) accounts of the 36 houses of Assembly, and interviews of relevant officials, the authors show that although an online presence is largely mainstream, the depth of use for publishing information and citizen engagement is very low. The authors identify explanatory factors for this and draw relevant conclusions.

Odeyemi, TI, Mosunmola OO.  2015.  Stakeholders, Information and Communication Technologies platforms and the 2015 General Elections in Nigeria, 28th July. National Conference on the 2015 General Elections in Nigeria: The Real Issues. , The Electoral Institute, Independent National Electoral Commission, Abuja, Nigeriastakeholders_icts_platforms_and_the_electoral_process_odeyemi_mosunmola_ed.pdf
Odeyemi, OB, Ajayi SA, Olakojo SA.  2010.  Physiological quality of informal sector maize seeds in Nigeria. Journal of New Seeds. 11(3):190-199.jns_11-2.pdf
Odeyemi, AT, Adebayo AA, Omoboye OO, Ajayi SS.  2013.  Incidence of lipolytic mycoflora in domestic wastewater. Journal of Natural Sciences Research. 3(8):150-156.mycoflora_journal.pdf
Odeyemi, TI, Igwebueze GU, Abati OO, Ogundotun AO.  Submitted.  Political hibernation in-between elections? Exploring the online communication and mobilisation capacities of Nigeria's political parties Journal of Public Affairs. n/a:e2804., Number n/a AbstractWebsite

A noteworthy limitation among existing studies on the use of online technologies by political parties is the focus on elections. This study extends the frontiers by examining the extent to which Nigeria's political parties use their websites, as well as Facebook and Twitter platforms to communicate and mobilise citizens during and beyond elections. Using web assessment survey, data collected from the online platforms of registered political parties in February 2015 and February 2017 were analysed—to see trends in online activities during (2015 elections) and outside of elections (2017). The study reveals that the parties are caught in the web of the contradictory possibilities of digital engagement. On the one hand, is an online quiescence in the period between elections, which is premised on poor party institutionalisation. On the other hand, the parties are largely unable to reverse elements of institutionalisation challenges by leveraging digital tools to develop roots in the society and boost their public image. This quandary helps to demonstrate where the Nigerian party system fits in the equalisation versus normalisation debate on the utility of digital tools.

Odeyemi, AT, Dada AC, Oluyege JO.  2009.  Incidence of multiple antibiotic resistant Gram-negative bacteria isolated from surface and underground water sources in south western region of Nigeria. Water Sci Technol. 59:1929-36., Number 10 AbstractWebsite

In most rural and urban settlements, particularly in Nigeria, wells, spring, streams or rivers and lakes serves as major sources of water supply for drinking and other domestic purposes. Unfortunately, many of the available water sources are not potable without some form of treatment which is seldom available in most settings. The use of untreated surface water sources for drinking and for domestic purposes remains a major threat to public health as these could serve as reservoirs the for transfer of antibiotic resistant pathogens. The incidence of resistant bacteria isolated from surface and underground water in six rural settlements in Ekiti State Nigeria was thus investigated. Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from wells, streams and boreholes in six rural settlements in Ekiti State Nigeria between January and April, 2006 and the prevalence of organisms exhibiting multiple antibiotic resistance to tetracycline, amoxicillin, cotrimoxazole, nitofurantoin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid and ofloxacin was observed. Gram-negative bacterial isolates comprised Escherichia coli (22.7%), Enterobacter aerogenes (2.5%), Salmonella spp. (13.3%), Shigella spp. (19.3%), Proteus spp. (18.5%), Klebsiella spp. (19.3%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (4.2%). Over 10% of the bacteria were resistant to four or more antibiotic. Antibiotic resistance was highest in members of the genera Enterobacter, Pseudomonas, and Proteus. Given the prevalence of appalling sanitary facilities and inappropriate public antibiotic use, the possibility of antibiotic resistance selection, faecal dissemination and subsequent contamination of local water sources available for rural residents of the developing world is highlighted. The implication for clinical practice of infections caused by antibiotic resistant strains especially among immunodeficient individuals is also discussed.

Odeyemi, TI, Obiyan SA.  2018.  Exploring the subsidiarity principle in policing and the operations of the Nigeria Police Force. African Security Review. 27:42-60., Number 1: Routledge AbstractWebsite

ABSTRACTThe provisions of the 1999 Constitution, which recognises the existence of a single police force and forbids parallel police organisations, have oftentimes generated controversies among actors in the Nigerian federal polity. Rising insecurity precipitates lingering questions on the utility and adequacy of a single, highly centralised and centrally controlled police force given Nigeria’s geographic vastness and demographic diversity. Conversely, arguments have also dwelt on the dangers of fragmentation considering Nigeria’s psychosocial, economic and political nature. This article attempts to balance these arguments by analysing policing and the operations of the Nigeria Police Force (NPF) through the lens of the subsidiarity principle. Subsidiarity is a governance principle in federations, captured in the founding documents of the European Union (EU), which prescribes that governmental powers, authorities and duties should be held by the tier that can best perform them equitably, efficiently, effectively, suitably and based on interest and need. Drawing largely on interviews with purposively selected police scholars, political actors, civil society organisations and police personnel, the paper contends that this principle offers a pragmatic solution to the perennial problems of intergovernmental frictions on the use of the police within the context of governance in the Nigerian federation.

ODEYINKA, HENRYA, OLADAPO ADEA, Dada JO.  2004.  An assessment of risk in construction in the Nigerian construction industry. Globalisation and Construction. :359. Abstract
Odogwu, JA, Atere CT, Olayinka A, Adegbite MO.  2021.  Microbial respiration and nitrogen and phosphorus mineralization in cow dung–amended soils depending on moisture contents: a microcosm study. Journal of Soil Science and plant Nutrition.
Odu, E.A., Adedeji, O., Adebowale A..  2006.  Occurrence of Hermaphroditic Plants of Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae) in South-Western Nigeria. Journal of Plant Sciences. 1(3):254–263.