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Githua Macigo, F, Mutave R, Ogunbodede E, Gathece L.  2016.  Sugar consumption and dental caries experience in Kenya, 2016/04/05. International dental journal. 66 Abstract

Introduction:There have been claims that dental caries experience and prevalence in Kenya has been increasing as a result of increased sugar consumption. A review of the literature in 1986 failed to link dental caries experience with an increase in gross national sugar consumption. Subsequently, a number of studies were conducted, necessitating further review to examine trends in dental caries experience and to relate this to changes in per capita sugar consumption.
Methods:
Studies conducted since 1980 for children 3-15 years of age were examined. Dental caries prevalence and experience for 3-5 years' (deciduous teeth) and 12 years' (permanent teeth) age groups were analysed. Calculation of per capita sugar consumption was performed using gross national annual sugar consumption for 1969-2009 national population census years.
Results:
There was a gradual increase in per capita sugar consumption, from 35.5 g/day in 1969 to 60.8 g/day in 2009. Dental caries experience in deciduous teeth for children 3-5 years of age increased from a decayed, missing and filled teeth/decayed and filled teeth (dmft/dft) index of 1.5 in the 1980s to 2.95 in the 2000s. At 12 years of age, caries experience for permanent teeth increased from a DMFT of 0.2 to a DMFT of 0.92 over the same period. Dental caries prevalence for both deciduous and permanent teeth also increased with time.
Conclusion:
These observations suggest that dental caries prevalence and experience increased with time, in parallel to an increase in per capita sugar consumption. However, a clearer understanding can be derived from longitudinal studies, based on actual household age-specific sugar consumption and dental caries incidence.

Ogunbodede, E, A Kida I, S Madjapa H, Amedari M, Ehizele A, Mutave R, Sodipo B, Temilola S, Okoye L.  2015.  Oral Health Inequalities between Rural and Urban Populations of the African and Middle East Region, 2015/07/01. Advances in dental research. 27:18-25. Abstract

Although there have been major improvements in oral health, with remarkable advances in the prevention and management of oral diseases, globally, inequalities persist between urban and rural communities. These inequalities exist in the distribution of oral health services, accessibility, utilization, treatment outcomes, oral health knowledge and practices, health insurance coverage, oral health-related quality of life, and prevalence of oral diseases, among others. People living in rural areas are likely to be poorer, be less health literate, have more caries, have fewer teeth, have no health insurance coverage, and have less money to spend on dental care than persons living in urban areas. Rural areas are often associated with lower education levels, which in turn have been found to be related to lower levels of health literacy and poor use of health care services. These factors have an impact on oral health care, service delivery, and research. Hence, unmet dental care remains one of the most urgent health care needs in these communities. We highlight some of the conceptual issues relating to urban-rural inequalities in oral health, especially in the African and Middle East Region (AMER). Actions to reduce oral health inequalities and ameliorate rural-urban disparity are necessary both within the health sector and the wider policy environment. Recommended actions include population-specific oral health promotion programs, measures aimed at increasing access to oral health services in rural areas, integration of oral health into existing primary health care services, and support for research aimed at informing policy on the social determinants of health. Concerted efforts must be made by all stakeholders (governments, health care workforce, organizations, and communities) to reduce disparities and improve oral health outcomes in underserved populations.© International & American Associations for Dental Research 2015.

Adesina, F, Maduekwe N.  2014.  Multi Level Modelling of the Linkages Between Vegetation Cover Dynamics and Socio-economic Factors in the Idemili River Basin of Anambra State, Nigeria, 2014/09/02. Abstract

This study assesses the relationships between socio-economic factors and the spatial dynamics of vegetation cover inthe Idemili River Basin of South Eastern Nigeria. It is based on a socio-ecological systems dynamics modeling
concept highlighting locality scale relationships between vegetation cover densities and socio-demographic,
economic and socio-cultural factors in the basin. The modeling was implemented using regression techniques with
pixel level NDVI indicators of vegetation cover density developed from remote sensing image datasets and
indicators of eight socio-economic factors developed from a household survey of the basin. NDVI values for the
basin ranged from -.117 to .410 indicating a high level of human impact on vegetation. Modeling results showed that
bivariate relationships between vegetation cover dynamics and socio-demographic variables were the most
significant, with R Square values > .60 for linear and nonlinear models. Vegetation cover density had high inverse
correlations with population, urbanization levels and number of households in localities. Population/urbanization
status of localities was also the most significant principal component or underlying dimension linked to spatial
dynamics of vegetation cover in the basin accounting for 50% of factor variations. Relationships between vegetation
cover densities and economic factors (occupational and household energy patterns) and socio-cultural factors
(environmental knowledge, values and governance) were weaker, and less significant . The study showed that factor
interactions are a prominent aspect of vegetation-society relationship in the basin with both adverse and beneficial
implications to vegetation cover.
Keywords: Environmental change; multi-level modeling; socio-economic; vegetal cover

Mejiuni, O.  2013.  Women and Power: Education, Religion and Identity. Abstract

Education is an important tool for the development of human potential. Organizations and individuals interested in development consider knowledge, skills and attitudes, obtained through formal, non-formal and incidental learning, as invaluable assets. Therefore, it is necessary to reflect on fundamental elements that shape the process through which education is attained: How do people learn, and what are the conditions that facilitate effective learning? Answers to these questions demonstrate that no education can be politically neutral, because there is no value-free education.

The traditional or indigenous education systems in Nigeria, which covered (and still cover) physical training, development of character, respect for elders and peers, development of intellectual skills, specific vocational trainings, developing a sense of belonging and participation in community affairs, and understanding, appreciating and promoting the cultural heritage of the community were, and are, not value-free. In other words, the goals and purpose of education, the content, the entire process and the procedures chosen for evaluation in education are all value-laden.

This book attempts to show that the teaching-learning process in higher education, and religion, taught and learned through non-formal and informal education (or the hidden curriculum), and other socialization processes within and outside the formal school system, all interface to determine the persons that women become. This education enhances or limits women’s capabilities, whether in the civic-political sphere or in their attempts to resist violence. Hence, education and religion have ways of empowering or disempowering women.

Muse, WA.  2012.  Inaugural Lecture: Essence of Insect Promiscuity. , Ile-Ife: Obafemi Awolowo University Press Limited
Adesina, F, Odekunle T, Ajayi O, Eludoyin A, Babatimehin O, DAMI A, Sanni M, Aloba O, Magare A, Adetiloye OT.  2010.  Adaptation Strategies of Action for Nigeria, 2010/06/18. Abstract
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Adesina, F, Odekunle T, Ajayi O, Eludoyin A, Babatimehin O, DAMI A, Sanni M, Aloba O, Magare A, Adetiloye OT.  2010.  Adaptation Strategies of Action for Nigeria, 2010/06/18. Abstract
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Adesina, F, Odekunle T, Ajayi O, Eludoyin A, Babatimehin O, DAMI A, Sanni M, Aloba O, Magare A, Adetiloye OT.  2010.  Adaptation Strategies of Action for Nigeria, 2010/06/18. Abstract
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Musa, N, Babalola O, Oyebisi OO.  2010.  Competencies Required of Quantity Surveying, 2010/01/01. Abstract
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Ogunfolakan, A, Ogundiran A, Oshineye BK, Steyn G, Géloin CG, Mande CI, Martineau J-L, Amutabi CMN, Owino PM, Ojo CO, others.  2009.  Movements, borders, and identities in Africa. 40: University Rochester Press Abstract
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De Vries(nci, J, Murtomaa H, Butler(com M, Cherrett(nci H, Ferrillo(nci P, Ferro M, Gadbury-Amyot C, Haden K, Manogue M, Mintz J, E. Mulvihill(nci J, Murray(nci B, Nattestad A, Nielsen(nci D, Ogunbodede E, Parkash H, Plasschaert(nci F, T. Reed(nci M, L. Rupp(com R, Shanley(nci D.  2008.  The Global Network on Dental Education: a new vision for IFDEA, 2008/02/15. European Journal of Dental Education. 12:167-175. Abstract

The advent of globalization has changed our perspectives radically. It presents increased understanding of world affairs, new challenges and exciting opportunities. The inequitable distribution and use of finite energy resources and global warming are just two examples of challenges that can only be addressed by concerted international collaboration. Globalization has become an increasingly important influence on dentistry and dental education. The International Federation for Dental Educators and Associations (IFDEA) welcomes the challenges it now faces as a player in a complex multifaceted global community. This report addresses the new circumstances in which IFDEA must operate, taking account of the recommendations made by other working groups. The report reviews the background and evolution of IFDEA and describes the extensive developments that have taken place in IFDEA over the past year with the introductions of a new Constitution and Bylaws overseen by a newly established Board of Directors. These were the consequence of a new mission, goals and objectives for IFDEA. An expanded organization is planned using http://www.IFDEA.org as the primary instrument to facilitate the exchange of knowledge, programmes and expertise between colleagues and federated associations throughout the world, thereby promoting higher standards in oral health through education in low-, middle- and high-income countries of the world. Such aspirations are modified by the reality and enormity of poverty-related global ill health.

Rudolph, M, Ogunbodede E, Mistry M.  2007.  Management of the oral manifestations of HIV/AIDS by traditional healers and care givers, 2007/04/01. Curationis. 30:56-61. Abstract

In many communities of South Africa, traditional healers are often the only means of health care delivery available. The level of knowledge and ability to recognize oral lesions of 32 traditional healers and 17 care-givers were assessed after a two-day workshop. The data collection instrument was a structured questionnaire, complimented by enlarged clinical photographs of the common oral manifestations of HIV/AIDS. Prior to the workshop, 46 (93.9%) of the 49 respondents had never had any formal information on oral health and 43 (87.8%) were unfamiliar with the symptoms of oral diseases. Thirty-five (71.4%) recognized bleeding gums from A4-size photographs and 11 (22.4%) recognized oral thrush. The recognition of other oral manifestations of HIV/AIDS were; oral hairy leukoplakia (41.0%), angular cheilitis (43.6%), herpes virus infection (56.4%), oral ulcerations (56.8%), and in children, parotid enlargement (27.3%), and moluscum contagiosum (56.8%). Traditional healers and caregivers constitute an untapped resource with enormous potential. A positive bridge should be built to link traditional healing with modem medicine in the struggle against HIV/AIDS.

Rudolph, M, Ogunbodede E, Mistry M.  2007.  Management of the oral manifestations of HIV/AIDS by traditional healers and care givers, 2007/04/01. Curationis. 30:56-61. Abstract

In many communities of South Africa, traditional healers are often the only means of health care delivery available. The level of knowledge and ability to recognize oral lesions of 32 traditional healers and 17 care-givers were assessed after a two-day workshop. The data collection instrument was a structured questionnaire, complimented by enlarged clinical photographs of the common oral manifestations of HIV/AIDS. Prior to the workshop, 46 (93.9%) of the 49 respondents had never had any formal information on oral health and 43 (87.8%) were unfamiliar with the symptoms of oral diseases. Thirty-five (71.4%) recognized bleeding gums from A4-size photographs and 11 (22.4%) recognized oral thrush. The recognition of other oral manifestations of HIV/AIDS were; oral hairy leukoplakia (41.0%), angular cheilitis (43.6%), herpes virus infection (56.4%), oral ulcerations (56.8%), and in children, parotid enlargement (27.3%), and moluscum contagiosum (56.8%). Traditional healers and caregivers constitute an untapped resource with enormous potential. A positive bridge should be built to link traditional healing with modem medicine in the struggle against HIV/AIDS.

Ogunbodede, E, Mickenautsch S, Rudolph M.  2000.  Oral Health Care in Refugee Situations: Liberian Refugees in Ghana, 2000/09/01. J Refug Stud. 13 Abstract

Oral health programmes for refugees should emphasize a Primary Health Care approach focusing on prevention, based on appropriate technology, and promoting involvement of the refugee community in the provision of services. This report describes a unique programme at the Liberian refugee camp Gomoa Buduburam, Central Region, Ghana. The programme resulted in the effective participation of a refugee community in oral health promotion, and empowerment of members of the community to take care of their own oral health. A comprehensive primary oral health care programme is essential for refugee camps, especially when the camp has become stable. This programme represents an approach to oral health promotion in refugee situations characterized by full community participation. It is recommended that UNHCR should accommodate oral health within the major health framework for refugee populations, including provisions for Community Oral Health Worker remuneration as well as equipment and material supply.

Mickenautsch, S, Kopsala J, Rudolph M, Ogunbodede E.  2000.  Clinical evaluation of the ART approach and materials in peri-urban farm schools of the Johannesburg area, 2000/07/01. SADJ : journal of the South African Dental Association = tydskrif van die Suid-Afrikaanse Tandheelkundige Vereniging. 55:364-8. Abstract

In this study, 1,325 school children from 7 farm schools were examined. Their mean age (+/- SD) was 10.5 +/- 3.0 (range 6-11) years. At baseline, the mean DMFT score was 1.1 +/- 1.7 and 36.4% of the children had caries. The prevalence of fluorosis among the children was 12.6%. Curative treatment was offered to all the children. A total of 113 children (8.5%) with one-surface cavities on permanent teeth and without fluorosis were treated using the atraumatic restorative treatment (ART) approach. A total number of 163 cavities were included in the study, of which 82 were treated with Fuji IX glass-ionomer cement and 81 with Ketac-MOLAR (hand mix). One year after treatment, restoration and sealant parts of ART fillings were examined. Caries status was also determined. The placing of the ART fillings and their evaluation were performed by different practitioners. A total number of 108 restorations (58 with Fuji IX, 50 with Ketac-MOLAR) were evaluated. Results of ART fillings showed a survival rate of 93.1% with Fuji and 94.0% with Ketac-MOLAR. Retention of the sealant parts of ART fillings was observed in 81% of restorations with Fuji IX and 76% with Ketac-MOLAR, not connected to the filled cavity. Caries was absent on all teeth restored with Fuji IX and noted in only one tooth restored with Ketac-MOLAR, not connected to the filled cavity. The retention rate after a 12-month period was acceptable and ART approach proved to be an appropriate technique for restoring teeth in this population group. There were no statistically significant differences between the survival rates of the two glass-ionomer restorative materials (P > 0.05).

Mickenautsch, S, Rudolph M, Ogunbodede E, Frencken J.  1999.  The impact of the ART approach on the treatment profile in a Mobile Dental System (MDS) in South Africa, 1999/06/01. International dental journal. 49:132-8. Abstract

The changing profile of oral care rendered through the Mobile Dental System (MDS), after the introduction of the Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) approach is described. During the first year of introduction of ART, the percentages of amalgam restorations and tooth extractions decreased significantly (P < 0.0001). This is partly ascribed to a change in choice of treatment by dental operators in favour of ART and also due to an increase in acceptance by patients because of the reduced fear, and the patient-friendly nature of the ART approach. The reduction in amalgam restorations was 16.0 per cent for permanent and 1.4 per cent for primary posterior teeth. Extraction of posterior teeth was reduced by 17.4 per cent in the permanent and 35.7 per cent in the primary dentitions. The restorative component of oral care increased by 33.4 per cent in the permanent and 37.1 per cent in primary posterior teeth. The one-year survival of one-surface ART restorations using Fuji IX and KetacMolar was 93.6 per cent. Full and partial (more than 90 per cent) retention of the sealant part of the ART restoration was obtained in 75 per cent of the cases after one-year. During the one-year period, infection control was made more simple and this facilitated easier maintenance of mobile dental equipment. The introduction of the ART approach reduced extraction, restored more teeth and made oral care in the MDS more preventive, less threatening and thus more patient-friendly.

Mickenautsch, S, Rudolph M, Ogunbodede E, Chikte U.  1999.  Oral health among Liberian refugees in Ghana, 1999/05/01. East African medical journal. 76:206-11. Abstract

To promote community involvement in the provision of oral health services.The project consisted of a four-week training course in oral health for selected refugees, an oral health survey based on WHO guidelines and conducted by the refugees themselves and the provision of oral health care services to the community by the trained refugees.
Liberian refugee camp, Gomoa Buduburam in Ghana.
Liberian refugees of all ages.
Twelve refugees were given short term training in oral health. In the oral health survey, 196 refugees were clinically examined for dental caries, periodontal disease and malocclusion.
DMFT (for dental caries), CPITN (for periodontal disease), and malocclusion scores for selected subjects. Also clinical services rendered.
Oral health survey revealed a mean age (+/- SD) of 25.7 (+/- 9.5) years. Only thirty nine (19.9%) of the subjects were caries-free, and total DMFT was 2.5 +/- 2.2. Based on the CPITN, 107 (54.6%) required oral hygiene instructions (OHI), and 41 (20.9%) required prophylactic scaling with OHI. Forty four (22.5%) of the subjects had normal occlusion and 152 (77.5%) mild to severe malocclusion. Periodontal (75.5%), prosthetic (52.5%) interventions and extractions (34.2%) constituted the bulk of the treatment needs required. Clinical treatment was rendered by the trained refugees to 846 patients over a twelve month period.
Relief programmes for refugees should emphasise a primary health care approach, focusing on prevention, based on appropriate technology, and promoting involvement by the refugee community in the provision of services.

Book Chapter
Mwita, M, Ibigbami O, Sukhai A.  2021.  Self-Immolation in Sub-Saharan Africa, 2021/02/03. :87-97. Abstract

Suicide by self-immolation is a traumatic and life-altering public health problem affecting communities in developing countries worldwide. Suicide research in Sub-Saharan Africa is limited, but epidemiologic studies, documented cases and clinical reports from South Africa, Nigeria and Zimbabwe allow us to construct a profile of enabling, predisposing and precipitating factors associated with self-immolation in this region of the continent, with distinct differences when compared to the self-immolations in Northern Africa. This chapter addresses the epidemiology of suicide and demographic factors of self-immolators in Sub-Saharan Africa, as well as predisposing factors, in order to determine suicide risk among individuals and communities and better design prevention strategies. Risk factors include access to means, social vulnerability, intimate partner violence, and the intergenerational transmission of trauma. We also discuss historical events and context, cultural and psychosocial factors that may predispose vulnerable individuals to suicide by self-immolation. Transcultural factors include xenophobia, suicide by contagion, fundamentalist religious attitudes, the criminalization of suicide and discrimination against persons with mental disorders.

and Mobolaji O AjibadeIn: Philipp Ohlmann, WGM-LF(E).  2020.  The role of Pentecostalism in sustainable development in Nigeria.. , African Initiated Christianity and the Decolonisation of Development: Sustainable Development in Pentecostal and Independent Churches,. , New York:: Routledge
M.O, O, Olapoju O.M., J.U. O.  2020.  Spatio-Temporal Pattern of Road Traffic Injuries and Fatalities. Good Health and Well-Being. Encyclopedia of the UN Sustainable Development Goals. Living Edition . : Springer, Cham
Tantawi, ME, Folayan MO, Mehaina M.  2018.  From the present to the future: global profile of early childhood caries. Folayan MO (Ed). A compendium on oral health of children around the world: early childhood caries . , 400 Ser Avenue, Suite 1600, Hauppauge, NY, 11788. : Nova Science Publishers Inc.
Mary Nyasimi, Ayansina Ayanlade, Catherine Mungai, Mercy Derkyi, Jegede MO.  2018.  Inclusion of Gender in Africa’s Climate Change Policies and Strategies. Handbook of Climate Change Communication. : Springer
Mobolaji Oyebisi Ajibade In Toyin Falola &Akinyemi Akintunde(Ed).  2017.  Death, Mourning, Burial and Funeral . Culture and Customs of The Yoruba. , Austin: Pan-African University Presss
Melvin, AO.  2013.  Enhancing masculinity and sexuality in later life through modern medicine: Experiences of polygynous Yoruba men in southwest Nigeria. Aging Men, Masculinities and Modern Medicine. :148-165.: Routledge Abstract
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