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Owolabi, MO, Sarfo F, Akinyemi R, Gebregziabher M, Akpa O, Akpalu A, Wahab K, Obiako R, Ovbiagele B, Sarfo FS, Akinyemi R, Gebregziabher M, Akpa O, Akpalu A, Obiako R, Ovbiagele B, Tiwari HK, Arnett D, Lackland D, Adeoye AM, Akin O, Ogbole G, Jenkins C, Arulogun O, Ryan IM, Armstrong K, Olowoyo P, Komolafe M, Osaigbovo G, Obiabo O, Chukwuonye I, Adebayo P, Adebayo O, Omololu A, Otubogun F, Olaleye A, Durodola A, Olunuga T, Akinwande K, Aridegbe M, Fawale B, Adeleye O, Kolo P, Appiah L, Singh A, Adamu S, Awuah D, Saulson R, Agyekum F, Shidali V, Ogah O, Oguntade A, Umanruochi K, Iheonye H, Imoh L, Afolaranmi T, Calys-Tagoe B, Okeke O, Fakunle A, Akinyemi J, Akpalu J, Ibinaiye P, Agunloye A, Sanni T, Bisi A, Efidi C, Bock-Oruma A, Melikam S, Olaniyan L, Yaria J, Odo CJ, Lakoh S, Ogunjimi L, Salaam A, Oyinloye L, Asaleye C, Sanya E, Olowookere S, Makanjuola A, Oguntoye A, Uvere E, Faniyan M, Akintunde A, Kehinde I, Diala S, Adeleye O, Ajose OA, Onyeonoro U, Amusa AG, Owusu D, Mensah Y, Owolabi L.  2018.  Dominant modifiable risk factors for stroke in Ghana and Nigeria (SIREN): a case-control study, 2018. The Lancet Global Health. 6(4) Abstract

Background: Sub-Saharan Africa has the highest incidence, prevalence, and fatality from stroke globally. Yet, only little information about context-specific risk factors for prioritising interventions to reduce the stroke burden in sub-Saharan Africa is available. We aimed to identify and characterise the effect of the top modifiable risk factors for stroke in sub-Saharan Africa. Methods: The Stroke Investigative Research and Educational Network (SIREN) study is a multicentre, case-control study done at 15 sites in Nigeria and Ghana. Cases were adults (aged ≥18 years) with stroke confirmed by CT or MRI. Controls were age-matched and gender-matched stroke-free adults (aged ≥18 years) recruited from the communities in catchment areas of cases. Comprehensive assessment for vascular, lifestyle, and psychosocial factors was done using standard instruments. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and population-attributable risks (PARs) with 95% CIs. Findings: Between Aug 28, 2014, and June 15, 2017, we enrolled 2118 case-control pairs (1192 [56%] men) with mean ages of 59·0 years (SD 13·8) for cases and 57·8 years (13·7) for controls. 1430 (68%) had ischaemic stoke, 682 (32%) had haemorrhagic stroke, and six (<1%) had discrete ischaemic and haemorrhagic lesions. 98·2% (95% CI 97·2–99·0) of adjusted PAR of stroke was associated with 11 potentially modifiable risk factors with ORs and PARs in descending order of PAR of 19·36 (95% CI 12·11–30·93) and 90·8% (95% CI 87·9–93·7) for hypertension, 1·85 (1·44–2·38) and 35·8% (25·3–46·2) for dyslipidaemia, 1·59 (1·19–2·13) and 31·1% (13·3–48·9) for regular meat consumption, 1·48 (1·13–1·94) and 26·5% (12·9–40·2) for elevated waist-to-hip ratio, 2·58 (1·98–3·37) and 22·1% (17·8–26·4) for diabetes, 2·43 (1·81–3·26) and 18·2% (14·1–22·3) for low green leafy vegetable consumption, 1·89 (1·40–2·54) and 11·6% (6·6–16·7) for stress, 2·14 (1·34–3·43) and 5·3% (3·3–7·3) for added salt at the table, 1·65 (1·09–2·49) and 4·3% (0·6–7·9) for cardiac disease, 2·13 (1·12–4·05) and 2·4% (0·7–4·1) for physical inactivity, and 4·42 (1·75–11·16) and 2·3% (1·5–3·1) for current cigarette smoking. Ten of these factors were associated with ischaemic stroke and six with haemorrhagic stroke occurrence. Interpretation: Implementation of interventions targeting these leading risk factors at the population level should substantially curtail the burden of stroke among Africans. Funding: National Institutes of Health.

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El Tantawi, M, Folayan MO, Mehaina M, Vukovic A, Castillo JL, Gaffar BO, Arheiam A, Al-Batayneh OB, Kemoli AM, Schroth RJ, GHM L.  2018.  Early childhood caries: country level determinants of prevalence and data availability. . American Journal of Public Health . 108(8):e1-e7.doi:10.2105/AJPH.2018.304466.
Folayan, M, El Tantawi M, Gaffar B, Schroth R, Catillo J, Al-Batayneh O, Kemoli A, Medina A, Díaz M, Pavlic V, Rashwan M.  2020.  An ecological study of the association between environmental indicators and early childhood caries, 2020/10/08. 13:474. Abstract
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Oloniniyi, IO, Aloba OO, Akinsulore A, Adeniyi BO, Oginni OA, Erhabor GE, Makanjuola RO.  2019.  Economic Cost of Asthma and Psychiatric Morbidity in Nigerian Patients with Asthma.. West African journal of medicine. 36:267–273., Number 3 Abstract
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Oloniniyi, IO, Akinsulore A, Aloba OO, Mapayi BM, Oginni OA, Makanjuola R.  2019.  Economic cost of schizophrenia in a Nigerian teaching hospital. Journal of neurosciences in rural practice. 10:39–47., Number 01: Thieme Medical and Scientific Publishers Private Ltd. Abstract
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Ogunniyi, S, Makinde O, Adeniyi A, Sanusi Y, Lawal O.  1998.  Ectopic Pregnancy Involving the Rectum, 11. Tropical doctor. 28:239-40. Abstract
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Muse, WA, Balogun RA, Oluyole OO.  1996.  Effect of aqueous neem leaf extract on growth and development of larvae of Anopheles gambiae (Gills). Pakistan Journal of Entomology Karachi. 11(1&2):5-8.
Salami, AT;, Farounbi A.I., and Muoghalu JI.  2002.  Effect of Cement Production on Vegetation in a Part of Southwestern Nigeria”,. Tanzania Journal of Science,. 28(2):pp69-82.
Michael, O, Pitondo-Silva A, Silva L, Santos Ré A, Marcato P, Massaro T, Polizello A, Aires C.  2021.  Effect of Chitosan-Coated Nanostructured Lipid Carrier on Escherichia coli Biofilms, 2021/09/01. 11:1-8. Abstract

Antimicrobial delivery systems are useful tools to control biofilm growth on abiotic surfaces such as urinary catheter. The present study examined whether nanostructured lipid carriers coated with chitosan (NLC-chitosan) affected the growth of uropathogenic biofilms of Escherichia coli. NLC-chitosan was prepared using the emulsion and sonication method, and further characterized with respect to particle size, polydispersity index, and zeta potential. After determining the minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations, E. coli biofilms were grown on catheter specimens (following a preliminary study in which E. coli was found to adhere better to the catheter surface than glass slide and plate). At the 48, 72, 96, and 120 h of growth, they were exposed to 0.9% NaCl solution (negative control), 0.12% chlorhexidine solution (positive control), or NLC-chitosan (final chitosan concentration of 0.28%). After 24 h of treatment, the biofilms were collected to analyze their bacterial viability. NLC-chitosan preparation had bimodal particle size distribution with mean size of 292.9 ± 2.5 nm and polydispersity index of 0.24 ± 0.03 and positive zeta potential (+19.1 ± 0.2) indicating the nanoparticle coating by chitosan. Compared with the control groups, NLC-chitosan affected bacterial viability of biofilms at all ages studied (p<0.05). NLC-chitosan can effectively control the growth of young and mature biofilms of uropathogenic E. coli.

Adeyanju, SA, M.M. M, E.T. D.  2017.  EFFECT OF CLASS SIZE ON THE LEARNING OF MOTOR SKILL AMONG SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOL STUDENTS IN IFE CENTRAL LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA OF OSUN STATE, NIGERIA. European Journal of Physical Education and Sport Science. 3(1):52-60. Abstract512-1952-2-pb.pdfWebsite

The effect of class size on the learning of motor skill among selected secondary school students of Ife Central Local Government of Area of Osun state, Nigeria was examined. The study was experimental in nature and it involved pre-test and post-test using a novel skill (push pass in hockey). Three secondary schools where the game of hockey was neither taught nor played were purposively selected for the study. Participants were selected using stratified random sampling method with sex as the stratum. Participants for the study comprised 56 male and female students age 11-15 years that were not familiar with the skill. Three classes were drawn from the three schools. A small class size was drawn from School A with eight participants. In school B, a medium class size of 16 participants was drawn. The large class size of 32 participants was drawn from School C. Each of the classes had equal number of male and female participants. Push pass in hockey was measured at pre-test and post-test. Skill training took place after the pre-test measures. Mean and standard deviation were the descriptive analysis while t-test was the inferential statistic used for the data. The results of the analysis show that participants in medium class performed significantly better than participants in the large (t= 2.81: 46 p˂0.05) and small (t= 3.44: 22 p< 0.05) classes in the learning of motor skill. Females in medium class size also performed.
Keywords: class size, motor skill, motor skill learning

Neary, M, Lamorde M, Olagunju A, Darin KM, Merry C, Byakika-Kibwika P, Back DJ, Siccardi M, Owen A, Scarsi KK.  2017.  The Effect of Gene Variants on Levonorgestrel Pharmacokinetics when Combined with Antiretroviral Therapy containing Efavirenz or Nevirapine. Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics . (DOI: 10.1002/cpt.667) AbstractJournal Website

Reduced levonorgestrel concentrations from the levonorgestrel contraceptive implant was previously seen when given concomitantly with efavirenz. We sought to assess whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genes involved in efavirenz and nevirapine metabolism were linked to these changes in levonorgestrel concentration. SNPs in CYP2B6, CYP2A6, NR1I2 and NR1I3 were analysed. Associations of participant demographics and genotype with levonorgestrel pharmacokinetics were evaluated in HIV-positive women using the levonorgestrel implant plus efavirenz- or nevirapine-based ART, in comparison to ART-naïve women using multivariate linear regression. Efavirenz group: CYP2B6 516G>T was associated with lower levonorgestrel log10 Cmax and log10 AUC. CYP2B6 15582C>T was associated with lower log10 AUC. Nevirapine group: CYP2B6 516G>T was associated with higher log10 Cmax and lower log10 Cmin . Pharmacogenetic variations influenced subdermal levonorgestrel pharmacokinetics in HIV-positive women, indicating that the magnitude of the interaction with non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs) is influenced by host genetics.

Oyedotun, K, Mirghni A, Fasakin O, Tarimo D, Mahmoud B, Manyala N.  2021.  Effect of growth-time on electrochemical performance of birnessite manganese oxide (δ-MnO2) as electrodes for supercapacitors: An insight into neutral aqueous electrolytes, 2021/04/01. 36:102419. Abstract

This study demonstrates successful synthesis of nanoflower-like birnessite δ-MnO2 materials through a simple and effective hydrothermal technique. Characterization of the flower-like materials grown at various dwell times were carried out by employing scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and Barrett–Joyner–Halenda (BJH) models, and electrochemical analysis to understand the effect of different growth time on their morphological, structural, surface area along with pore size distribution and electrochemical characteristics as electrodes for electrochemical capacitors. Attention is mainly based on electrochemical assessment of the as-synthesized materials with an insight into some neutral aqueous electrolytes, mainly lithium sulphate (1 M Li2SO4) and sodium sulphate (1 M Na2SO4) solutions as potential medium owing to their non-corrosive nature, cost-effectiveness, electrochemical stability and environmentally friendliness. Significant charge propagation, with a high specific capacitance of 387.1 F g⁻¹ was achieved for the half-cell electrode in 1 M Li2SO4 alongside excellent cycling stability for up to 5 000 cycles performed at 3 A g⁻¹ specific current. A comprehensive electrochemical assessment is performed to understanding the relationship between solvated and diffused ions of the neutral electrolytes that could result in fast charge storage kinetics as well as high specific capacitance.

MONDAY James, INNEH Godwin, OJOV.  2014.  Effect of Internal Control Systems on Operating Performance of Small Business in Lagos Metropolis. International Conference on Accounting, Finance and Management,. :237-256., Ile-Ife: Department of Management & Accounting, O.A.U.my_paper_internal_control_icafim_2014_full_paper_amended_1.pdf
Olldashi, F, Muzha I, Filipi N, Lede R, Copertari P, Traverso C, Copertari A, Vergara EA, Montenegro C, De Huidobro RR et al..  2004.  Effect of intravenous corticosteroids on death within 14 days in 10008 adults with clinically significant head injury (MRC CRASH trial): Randomised placebo-controlled trial, 2004. The Lancet. 364(9442) Abstract

Background Corticosteroids have been used to treat head injuries for more than 30 years. In 1997, findings of a systematic review suggested that these drugs reduce risk of death by 1-2%. The CRASH trial—a multicentre international collaboration—aimed to confirm or refute such an effect by recruiting 20 000 patients. In May, 2004, the data monitoring committee disclosed the unmasked results to the steering committee, which stopped recruitment. Methods 10 008 adults with head injury and a Glasgow coma score (GCS) of 14 or less within 8 h of injury were randomly allocated 48 h infusion of corticosteroids (methylprednisolone) or placebo. Primary outcomes were death within 2 weeks of injury and death or disability at 6 months. Prespecified subgroup analyses were based on injury severity (GCS) at randomisation and on time from injury to randomisation. Analysis was by intention to treat. Effects on outcomes within 2 weeks of randomisation are presented in this report. This study is registered as an International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial, number ISRCTN74459797. Findings Compared with placebo, the risk of death from all causes within 2 weeks was higher in the group allocated corticosteroids (1052 [21·1%] vs 893 [17·9%] deaths; relative risk 1·18 [95% CI 1·09-1·27]; p=0·0001). The relative increase in deaths due to corticosteroids did not differ by injury severity (p=0·22) or time since injury (p=0·05). Interpretation Our results show there is no reduction in mortality with methylprednisolone in the 2 weeks after head injury. The cause of the rise in risk of death within 2 weeks is unclear.

Talabi, A, Sowande O, Mosaku K, Owojuyigbe A, Amosu L, Adejuyigbe O.  2021.  Effect of parental presence on anxiety during induction of anaesthesia in children undergoing elective day case surgery, 2021/12/01. 17 Abstract

BackgroundSurgical operation and anaesthesia induction are fearful events which may interfere with the smooth conduct of anaesthesia and postoperative recovery in children. Indeed, the fear of needles, syringes and unknown hospital environment often compound their anxiety. Various modalities such as use of clowns, music, low intensity light in the induction room, pharmacological agents and parental presence during induction of anaesthesia have been utilized with the aim of gaining the cooperation of the children during induction. However, their use has yielded conflicting results. This prospective study was conducted among children whose ages were between 2 and 15 years. They were randomized into parental presence and parental absence (un-accompanied) or control groups. The anxiety levels of children and parents in both groups were compared at baseline, separation and during induction of anaesthesia.
Results
The ages of the children ranged between 2 and 15 years with a mean age of 6.78 ± 2.50 years. The mean age of patients in the parental presence at induction (PPIA) was 7.14 ± 3.68 years while in the control group was 6.42 ± 3.31 years. The difference was not statistically significant, p < 0.05. The mean anxiety score of patients in the PPIA at reception, separation and induction of anaesthesia were 26.6 ± 9.2, 38.4 ± 18.3 and 54.1 ± 22.8 compared to 27.3 ± 8.04, 41.4 ± 21.7 and 58.6 ± 23.1 in the control group respectively, p < 0.05. The mean anxiety score of parents in the PPIA at reception, separation and induction of anaesthesia were 52.2 ± 6.7, 51.7 ± 7.8 and 51.9 ± 7.9 compared to 53.0 ± 6.5, 52.4 ± 6.2 and 52.9 ± 7.9 in the control group respectively, p < 0.05. Among the cohort of preschool age group, children in the control group were more anxious at induction compared to the PPIA group, p = 0.01. As the age increases, the anxiety state of the children decreases, t = − 0.398, p < 0.001. The mean score of parental satisfaction in the PPIA and the control groups were comparable, 8.1 ± 7.1 vs 7.3 ± 1.1 respectively, p = 0.395.
Conclusion
The presence of parents during induction of anaesthesia did not influence the anxiety states of children in our study. Anxiety at induction tends to reduce as the age of patients increases.

Aviara, NA, Musa WB, Owolarafe OK, Ogunsina BS, Oluwole FA.  2015.  Effect of processing conditions on oil point pressure of Moringa oleifera seed. Journal of food science and technology. 52:4499–4506., Number 7: Springer Abstract
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Orji, E, Shittu A, Makinde O, Sule S.  2004.  Effect of prolonged birth spacing on maternal and perinatal outcome, 09. East African medical journal. 81:388-91. Abstract
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Manneh, YE, Adesopo A.  2022.  Effect of Recruitment and Selection Methods on Employee Performance in the Public Service of the Gambia. Canadian Academy of Oriental and Occidental Culture. 18(1)12431-26776-1-pb.pdf
Muse, WA, Kehinde TO, Olodi AO, Sosan MB, Obuotor EM.  2002.  Effect of some pulverized plant extracts on oviposition, hatching and development of larvae of Aede aegypti (L.).. Environment and Ecology. 20(4):810-817.