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Daromosu, H, Morgan R, Adewara B.  2022.  Assessment of Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness in Nigerian Adults Using Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography, 2022/08/31. 30:63-68. Abstract

Objective: To measure the circumpapillary retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness in normal eyes of Nigerian adults using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Materials and methods: This was a cross-sectional study of normal eyes of Nigerian adults between July and September 2016 at the eye clinic of a tertiary hospital in Nigeria. Sociodemographic data, clinical history, and examination findings were obtained. Dipstick urinalysis and blood pressure measurements were performed. Circumpapillary RNFL thickness was measured with the Topcon 3D OCT-1 Maestro version 8.30 (Topcon Medical Systems, Inc., Oakland, NJ, USA), using the 3D optic nerve head analysis. Data were analyzed using the International Business Machine (IBM) Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS)Statistics, version 25.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY, USA) and the level of significance was set at P < 0.05. Results: The study included 120participants (240 eyes) with an age range of 18 to 53 years and a mean age of 34.06 ± 7.64 years. There were 59 (49.17%) males and 61(50.83%) females. The average RNFL thickness in the right and left eyes was 112.26 ± 9.6 and 110.53 ± 9.14 mm, respectively. The average RNFL thickness for the Igbo ethnic group was 117.5 ± 7.69 and 115.04 ± 7.18 mm in the right and left eyes, respectively. The mean RNFL thickness for the inferior, superior, nasal, and temporal quadrants was 148.92 ± 15.77, 142.59 ± 16.48, 85.3 ± 15.39, and 71.89 ± 9.35 mm in the right eyes and 149.28 ± 16.03, 141.69 ± 13.33, 81.82 ± 13.59, and 68.8 ± 10.17 mm in the left eyes, respectively. Conclusion: This study showed the normal circumpapillary RNFL thickness values in Nigerian adults using SD-OCT. There were variations based on ethnicity that suggest it may be important to use ethnic-specific benchmarks when interpreting OCT results for the management of glaucoma.


This paper evaluated the use and application of probability analysis in the assessment of construction risk. It has been a usual practice to estimate a single-price value for the cost of a project and a certain percentage allowance to cater for risk. A more realistic approach is to adopt the policy that the single point forecast is the most likely price with a range between the lowest price and the highest price. To demonstrate this, a typical project was used as a case study. The contract sum together with its breakdown into respective trade variables were collected. The data collected were analysed using probability analysis. The analysis and result presented provides guide in arriving at this range of values. It is concluded that the successful application of this technique into the estimation of construction project's cost will help in the management of construction risk. Introduction All human endeavours involve risk. The success or failure of any venture depends on how we deal with it. Construction industry is not an exception. This industry has had poor reputation for coping with risk with many projects failing to meet deadlines and cost targets. The participants, public and others have suffered as a result (Thompson et ai, 1992). Sources of risk can be in terms of payment, security deposit and retention, time of commencement and completion, variation, delay and cost of delay and liquidated damages. Size can be one of the major causes of risk; so. can changes in political or commercial planning. Other factors carrying risk with them include the complexity of the project, location, speed of construction and familiarity with the type of procurement system. These risks need to be properly assessed, analysed and managed for efficient operation of the industry. Norris et at (1992) and Thompson et at (1992) identified the most useful and main techniques of risk analysis tc be sensitivity and probability analyses. Chapman (1990), rated probability analysis over sensitivity analysis in that the former overcomes many of the limitations of the latter by specifying a probability distribution for each risk and then considering the effect of the risks in combination. This paper describes the concepts of probability analysis and its application in the management of construction risk. This is Illustrated by a case study.

Amarquaye, G, Arrow P, Bansal K, Bedi R, Campus G, Chen KJ, Chibinski A, Chinzorig T, Crystal Y, Duangthip D, Ferri M, Folayan M, Garidkhuu A, Hamama H, Jirarattanasopa V, Kemoli A, Leal S, Leelataweewud P, Chu C-H.  2021.  Global Oral Health Policies and Guidelines: Using Silver Diamine Fluoride for Caries Control, 2021/07/01. 2:685557. Abstract
Chen, KJ, Duangthip D, Gao S, Huang F, Anthonappa R, Oliveira B, Turton B, Durward C, El Tantawi M, Attia D, Heima M, Muthu S, Maharani D, Folayan M, Phantumvanit P, Sitthisettapong T, Innes N, Crystal Y, Ramos-Gomez F, Chu C-H.  2021.  Oral Health Policies to Tackle the Burden of Early Childhood Caries: A Review of 14 Countries/Regions, 2021/06/01. 2:670154. Abstract
Folayan, M, El Tantawi M, Virtanen J, Feldens C, Rashwan M, Kemoli A, Villena R, Al-Batayneh O, Amalia R, Gafar B, Mohebbi S, Arheiam A, Daryanavard H, Vukovic A, Schroth R.  2021.  Correction to: An ecological study on the association between universal health service coverage index, health expenditures, and early childhood caries, 2021/05/26. 21 Abstract
Jiang, CM, Duangthip D, Auychai P, Chiba M, Folayan M, Hamama H, Kamnoedboon P, Lyons K, Matangkasombut O, Mathu-Muju K, Mathur V, Mei ML, Morgan M, Poolthong S, Morankar R, Srinivasan M, Takahashi T, Yaklai S, Zhang S, Lo E.  2021.  Changes in Oral Health Policies and Guidelines During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Frontiers in Oral Health, 2021/05/21. 2 Abstract
Orimoogunje, O, Olufemi A, Dada E, Adekunle S, Nene E-O, Isioma N.  2021.  Dynamism of Landscape Transformation in Ibiono-Ibom, Akwa-Ibom State, Nigeria, 2021/05/01. 14:19-38. Abstract

Studies have shown that information on landscape transformation is an important benchmark data set because of its value as an environmental change indicator. Therefore, dynamism of landscape transformation over a 34-year period are analysed for a case study in Ibiono-Ibom, Akwa-Ibom State, Nigeria. The study adopted a mixed method consisting of remote sensing and GIS-based analysis, and semi-structured interviews covering 400 households while factors contributing to landscape structures and changes are studied. The results point out three main driving factors responsible for the landscape transformation in the study area: agricultural practices which lead to intensification of forest resources, riparian vegetation, vegetated wetlands and non-vegetated wetlands; urbanization which modifies the structure and morphology of the landscape, and finally, population growth directly related to massive infrastructural development which encroached on all other land spaces. GIS-based analysis of remotely-sensed data showed that built-up area had increased by 7535.2 ha between 1986 and 2020; shrub and arable land by 1343.9 ha and light forest decreased by 4998.3 ha. While bare-land reduced by 1522.1 ha; vegetated wetland reduced by 1092 ha; water body coverage reduced by 168 ha and non-vegetated wetland size also reduced by 2029.4 ha. Analysis of household survey results revealed that the perceptions of respondents validate the observed patterns during the remotely-sensed data analysis phase of the research, with 54 % (n=400) of respondents reporting a decline in agricultural land use, and 19.3 % (n=400) observing a decline in forest areas in the study area. Furthermore, agricultural intensification, urban development, timber exploitation, firewood collection and increase in settlements were identified as the proximate drivers of these observed landscape transformation dynamics in the study area. The study concluded that the variation in landscape transformation of the study area are clear indication of the extent of biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation in the study area.

Danjuma, D-A, Maza D, Stephen O, Akinlade G, Maza S, Olukotun G, Olubunmi A.  2021.  American Journal of Mathematical and Computer Modelling A Human Physiologically-based Bio-kinetic Model for Cadmium A Human Physiologically-based Bio-kinetic Model for, 2021/02/18. 6:9-13. Abstract

A physiologically-based bio-kinetic (PBBK) model, capable of simulating the absorption, distribution, and elimination of cadmium in humans has been developed. The formulation of this model was based on human data cleaned from literature. The liver, kidney, lung, artery, vein, stomach, small intestine and remainder of the body (other tissues not modelled explicitly) were modelled as compartments. While transfer rate coefficients were used to describe the kinetics of cadmium in the gastrointestinal track, the model used blood flow rates and partition coefficients rather than the traditional transfer rate coefficients to describe the distribution and accumulation of the chemical into critical organs such as liver, kidney and remainder of the body. A perfusion rate-limited kinetics model was assumed for these critical organs, where each of these tissues was regarded as a well-stirred compartment, without any concentration gradient within the compartment. The partition coefficients for critical organs modelled, along with transfer rate coefficients describing oral ingestion and inhalation were estimated by fitting the simulated concentration of cadmium in the liver, kidney and urine to observed concentrations found in literature. The model was capable of simulating, to a good degree of success, the results of empirical observations and other simulations found in literature. Simulations by the model also indicate that the partition coefficient of cadmium for the kidney, liver and other critical organs was higher in smokers.

Ajama, OD, Awoyemi MO, Arogundade AB, Dasho OA, Falade SC, Hammed OS, Shode OH.  2021.  Deep Crustal Network of the Equatorial Atlantic Fracture Zones in Southern Nigeria, 2021. :100027.: Elsevier Abstract
Akpa, O, Sarfo FS, Owolabi M, Akpalu A, Wahab K, Obiako R, Komolafe M, Owolabi L, Osaigbovo GO, Ogbole G, Tiwari HK, Jenkins C, Fakunle AG, Olowookere S, Uvere EO, Akinyemi J, Arulogun O, Akpalu J, Tito-Ilori MM, Asowata OJ, Ibinaiye P, Akisanya C, Oyinloye OI, Appiah L, Sunmonu T, Olowoyo P, Agunloye AM, Adeoye AM, Yaria J, Lackland DT, Arnett D, Laryea RY, Adigun TO, Okekunle AP, Calys-Tagoe B, Ogah OS, Ogunronbi M, Obiabo OY, Isah SY, Dambatta HA, Tagge R, Ogenyi O, Fawale B, Melikam CL, Onasanya A, Adeniyi S, Akinyemi R, Ovbiagele B.  2021.  A Novel Afrocentric Stroke Risk Assessment Score: Models from the Siren Study, 2021. Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases. 30(10) Abstract

Background: Stroke risk can be quantified using risk factors whose effect sizes vary by geography and race. No stroke risk assessment tool exists to estimate aggregate stroke risk for indigenous African. Objectives: To develop Afrocentric risk-scoring models for stroke occurrence. Materials and Methods: We evaluated 3533 radiologically confirmed West African stroke cases paired 1:1 with age-, and sex-matched stroke-free controls in the SIREN study. The 7,066 subjects were randomly split into a training and testing set at the ratio of 85:15. Conditional logistic regression models were constructed by including 17 putative factors linked to stroke occurrence using the training set. Significant risk factors were assigned constant and standardized statistical weights based on regression coefficients (β) to develop an additive risk scoring system on a scale of 0–100%. Using the testing set, Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curves were constructed to obtain a total score to serve as cut-off to discriminate between cases and controls. We calculated sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) at this cut-off. Results: For stroke occurrence, we identified 15 traditional vascular factors. Cohen's kappa for validity was maximal at a total risk score of 56% using both statistical weighting approaches to risk quantification and in both datasets. The risk score had a predictive accuracy of 76% (95%CI: 74–79%), sensitivity of 80.3%, specificity of 63.0%, PPV of 68.5% and NPV of 76.2% in the test dataset. For ischemic strokes, 12 risk factors had predictive accuracy of 78% (95%CI: 74–81%). For hemorrhagic strokes, 7 factors had a predictive accuracy of 79% (95%CI: 73–84%). Conclusions: The SIREN models quantify aggregate stroke risk in indigenous West Africans with good accuracy. Prospective studies are needed to validate this instrument for stroke prevention.

Watila, MM, Balarabe SA, Komolafe M, Igwe SC, Bimbo Fawale M, van Diessen E, Nyandaiti YW, Singh G, Winkler AS, Sander JW.  2021.  Translation and validation of an epilepsy-screening questionnaire in three Nigerian languages, 2021. Epilepsy and Behavior. 114 Abstract

Objective: We describe the development, translation and validation of epilepsy-screening questionnaires in the three most popular Nigerian languages: Hausa, Igbo and Yoruba. Methods: A 9-item epilepsy-screening questionnaire was developed by modifying previously validated English language questionnaires. Separate multilingual experts forward- and back-translated them to the three target languages. Translations were discussed with fieldworkers and community members for ethnolinguistic acceptability and comprehension. We used an unmatched affected-case versus unaffected-control design for the pilot study. Cases were people with epilepsy attending the tertiary hospitals where these languages are spoken. The controls were relatives of cases or people attending for other medical conditions. An affirmative response to any of the nine questions amounted to a positive screen for epilepsy. Results: We recruited 153 (75 cases and 78 controls) people for the Hausa version, 106 (45 cases and 61 controls) for Igbo and 153 (66 cases and 87 controls) for the Yoruba. The sensitivity and specificity of the questionnaire were: Hausa (97.3% and 88.5%), Igbo (91.1% and 88.5%) and Yoruba (93.9% and 86.7%). The three versions reliably indicated epilepsy with positive predictive values of 85.9% (Hausa), 85.4% (Igbo) and 87.3% (Yoruba) and reliably excluded epilepsy with negative predictive values of 97.1% (Hausa), 93.1% (Igbo) and 95.1% (Yoruba). Positive likelihood ratios were all greater than one. Conclusions: Validated epilepsy screening questionnaires are now available for the three languages to be used for community-based epilepsy survey in Nigeria. The translation and validation process are discussed to facilitate usage and development for other languages in sub-Saharan Africa.

Ojediran, OJ, Olatunde D, Aderibigbe V, Abolusoro S, Dahunsi A, Odekanle E, Odejobi O, Ibikunle R, Ogunwole J.  2021.  Valorization of Pennisetum purpureum (Elephant grass) and piggery manure for energy generation, 10. Fuel. 302:121209. Abstract
Oginni, O, Oloniniyi I, Ibigbami O, Ugo V, Amiola A, Ogunbajo A, Esan O, Adelola A, Daropale O, Ebuka M, Mapayi B.  2021.  Depressive and anxiety symptoms and COVID-19-related factors among men and women in Nigeria, 08. PLOS ONE. 16:e0256690. Abstract
Daniyan, M, Adeyipo T, Oyemitan I, Okwuese P, Victor O E, Akanmu M.  2021.  In vivo and in silico studies of Dennettia tripetala essential oil reveal the potential harmful effects of habitual consumption of the plant seed, 08. Toxicology Reports. 8 Abstract
Melesse, DY, Maulide Cane R, Mangombe A, Ijadunola M, Manu A, Bamgboye E, Mohiddin A, Muhumuza Kananura R, Akwara E, Plessis E, Dibaba Y, Mutua M, Mekonnen W, Faye C, Neal S, Ties B.  2021.  Inequalities in early marriage, childbearing and sexual debut among adolescents in sub-Saharan Africa, 06. Reproductive Health. 18 Abstract
Dibaba, Y, Mutua M, Mohiddin A, Ijadunola M, Faye C, Coll C, J D Barros A, Kabiru C.  2021.  Intimate partner violence against adolescents and young women in sub-Saharan Africa: who is most vulnerable?, 06 Reproductive Health. 18 Abstract
Orimoogunje, OOI, Adeleke BO, DADA E, Shote AA, EUDOXIE-OKAFOR AN, NWAYOR JI.  2021.  DYNAMISM OF LANDSCAPE TRANSFORMATION IN IBIONO-IBOM, AKWA-IBOM STATE, NIGERIA. Journal of Landscape Ecology. 14(1):19-38.dynamism_of_landscape_transformation_in_ibiono-ibom_akwa-ibom_state_nigeria.pdf
Jaiyeola, TG, David SP, Oyebola OO.  2021.  New algebraic properties of middle Bol loops II. Proyecciones Journal of Mathematics. 40(1):83-104.
Funmi, AE, Suleiman MA, Deborah OI, Dorcas AT.  2021.  Biogas production as energy source and strategy for managing waste and climate change. SN Applied Sciences. 3:1–11., Number 1: Springer Abstract
Arogundade, A, Arogundade AB, Awoyemi MO, Ajama OD, Falade SC, Hammed OS, Dasho OA, Adenika CA.  2021.  Integrated Aeromagnetic and Airborne Radiometric Data for Mapping Potential Areas of Mineralisation Deposits in Parts of Zamfara, North West Nigeria. Pure and Applied Geophysics. AbstractWebsite
Olayiwola, MA, Durugbo EU, Fajemila OT, Oyebanjo MO.  2021.  Sequence stratigraphy of subsurface upper Eocene-lower Oligocene deposits, Dahomey Basin, Southwestern Nigeria: palynological and palynofacies approach. Arabian Journal of Geosciences. 14:1–19., Number 15: Springer Abstract
Alatise, O, Owojuyigbe A, Omisore A, Ndububa D, Dua K, Asombang A.  2020.  Endoscopic management and clinical outcomes of obstructive jaundice, 2020/11/04. Abstract

Background:This study aimed at evaluating the endoscopic management and clinical outcomes in patients with obstructive jaundice undergoing Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) within a newly established apprenticeship teaching model at an academic centre in a resource-limited setting.
Materials and methods:
We employed an apprenticeship-style model of ERCP training with graded responsibility, multidisciplinary group feedback and short-interval repetition. We collected sociodemographic and clinicopathologic data on consecutive patients who underwent ERCP from March 2018 to February 2020.
A total of 177 patients were referred, of which 146 patients had an ERCP performed for obstructive jaundice and 31 excluded during the study period. The median age was 55 years, age range from 8 to 83 years. The most common referral diagnosis was pancreatic head cancer 56/146 (38.1%), followed by choledocholithiasis 29/146 (19.7%), cholangiocarcinoma 22/146 (15.0%) and gall bladder cancer 11/146 (7.5%). In all, 102 patients had a malignant indication for ERCP. The cannulation rate was 92%. The most common site for malignant biliary obstruction was proximal bile stricture in 31/102 (30.4%), followed by distal bile strictures in 30/102 (28.4%), periampullary cancer 20/102 (19.6%) and mid bile duct stricture in 9/102 (8.8%). The common benign obstructive etiology includes choledocholithiasis in 33/44 (75%) and mid duct obstruction from post-cholecystectomy bile duct injury in 3/44 (2.9%) while 2/44 (2.0%) patients had choledochal cyst. Overall complications were post-ERCP pancreatitis (8/146 patients), cholangitis (3/146 patients), stent migration and post-sphincterotomy bleeding (one patient each). Peri-procedural mortality was 5/146 (3.4%).
ERCP is an effective and safe method of treatment of patients with benign and malignant biliary obstruction. The low morbidity and mortality and its immediate therapeutic benefits, together with the short duration of hospitalization, indicate that this procedure is an important asset in the management of such patients.

Oseni, OM, Dada O, Okunlola G, Olowolaju E, Akinropo M, Akinjide A, Akinlabi A.  2020.  Phytoremediation technology, plant response to environmental contaminants and the need for soil augmentation, 2020/10/29. 12:486-499. Abstract

Contaminants in the environment occur naturally and/or through anthropogenic activities. These contaminants become a threat to all living organisms because of their increased in the environment and non-biodegradable nature. In order to protect the environment from these contamination, various techniques have been developed, and among them is phytoremediation. Phytoremediation is a technology that employed plant species for reclaiming contaminated soil, air, and water. This technology has been widely accepted in recent times, because of its low cost and environmentally friendly. In addition, augmentation of the contaminated soil, either chemo augmentation or bioaugmentation, have been used for the effective absorption of some of these contaminants. When the plants are grown in the contaminated sites, the contaminant in the soil maybe removed, immobilized, degraded or volatized. These phytoremediation technologies are: phytoextraction, phytovolatilization, rhizofiltration, phyto-stimulation, phyto-stabilization and phytodegradation. Based on the phytoremediation potentials of plants, pollutants are being removed from the environment thereby keeping the environment safe.

Folayan, M, El Tantawi M, Gaffar B, Schroth R, Catillo J, Al-Batayneh O, Kemoli A, Medina A, Díaz M, Pavlic V, Rashwan M.  2020.  An ecological study of the association between environmental indicators and early childhood caries, 2020/10/08. 13:474. Abstract