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Bolaji, A.  2020.  Reproductive biology of four weedy Euphorbia species from Ile-Ife, Nigeria, 2020/05/26. 22 Abstract

Euphorbia heterophylla Linn., Euphorbia hirta Linn., Euphorbia hyssopifolia Linn. and Euphorbia prostrata Linn. are four noxious, yet economically important weeds, useful as phytomedicine in some parts of the world and also in Nigeria. Studies were carried out on their reproductive biology with a view to understanding the mode of their spread. Parameters investigated include number of days to seedling emergence, germination percentage, number of days to flowering, period to anthesis, pollinators, pollen viability, pollen size, floral structure, fruits type, seeds type, average number of fruit per plant, average number of seeds per plant and mode of seed dispersal. Results obtained showed that the seedlings of the four Euphorbia species studied emerged within 3 to 5 days; numbers of days to 50% flowering took 44 to 58 days; while flowering and fruiting continued throughout the remaining part of the year; thus exhibited r-strategy, expending more time and allocation of resources on their reproductive phases than their vegetative phases. Also differences existed in their stigma shape, perianth colour, perianth texture, pollen sizes, pollen viability as well as ripened colour of seed which were all significant characters that could be useful in delimiting the species. Furthermore, the study revealed that the four species were essentially insect pollinated and their seeds dispersed by means of explosive mechanism usually characteristic of their schizocarpic fruits. This ability as well as their tendency to exhibit r-strategy could probably account for their ability to spread and invade cultivated fields, waste lands and roadsides. ABSTRACT 001

Babatunde, S, Perera S.  2017.  Cross-sectional comparison of public-private partnerships in transport infrastructure development in Nigeria, 2017/10/09. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management. 24:00-00. Abstract

PurposeAlthough scientific research community has shown considerable interest in identifying critical success factors (CSFs) for public-private partnership (PPP) projects, yet effort at assessing and compare CSFs within similar PPP infrastructure projects received scant attention. The purpose of this study is to identify, assess, and compare the CSFs in PPP transport infrastructure projects.
Design/methodology/approach
The study adopted literature review and three PPP case studies including structured interviews and review of documentary reports in each case study. The outcome of literature review provided a total list of 26 identified success factors, which was used to design a case study protocol using Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA) technique. FMEA was conducted on each 26 identified success factor to assess their criticality in the three PPP case studies.
Findings
The results of FMEA revealed a total of 10 CSFs in the concession of the road; four CSFs in the concession of the airport; and eight CSFs in the concession of the seaport. Also, the cross-case analysis showed the three prevalent CSFs, this includes government involvement by providing guarantees, political support, and project economic viability.
Practical implications
The study findings including lessons learnt in each case study would positively influence policy development towards PPP transport infrastructure projects and the manner in which partners (i.e. public and private sector) go about the development of PPP transport projects.
Originality/value
This research would help PPP stakeholders to focus their attention and priorities in managing the identified CSFs in achieving long-term success in PPP transport infrastructure projects implementation.

Shittu, K, Oyedele D, Babatunde K.  2017.  The effects of moisture content at tillage on soil strength in maize production, 2017/04/01. Egyptian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences. 4 Abstract
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B. Favoretto Pigatin, L´via, Atoloye IA, Abosede Obikoya O, Vinicius Borsato A´lio, Olı´mpia Oliveira Rezende M.  2016.  Chemical study of vermicomposted agroindustrial wastes, 2016/02/08. Int J Recycl Org Waste Agricult. 5 Abstract

PurposeThe disposal of solid waste is a serious environmental problem for humanity. Vermicomposting is used as one of the methods for recycling of organic waste, resulting in a humified material of great agronomic potential which promotes carbon sequestration when applied to the soil. The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical characteristics of vermicomposts from cattle manure (CM), orange peel (OP) and filter cake (FC).
Methods
Three compost piles were set up, 2:1 OP + CM, 3:1 FC + CM and CM. The piles were initially composted for 60 days. Thereafter, earthworms were added to the piles to initiate the vermicomposting process.
Results
The pH and the organic carbon contents were above the minimum recommended values for organic fertilizers. The N content was below the minimum value but the C/N ratio was in the required range. The C/N values where lower in OP + CM and FC + CM than in CM. Further, the N contents of treatments were different with OP + CM having the highest value. The C/N ratios of the piles were 9.52, 9.62 and 11.03 for OP + CM, FC + CM and CM, respectively, and were lower than the maximum recommended value by the Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Food (Ministry of Agriculture 2009).
Conclusion
Thus, co-vermicomposting of filter cake and orange peel with cattle manure has the potential for application sustainable agriculture.

Braimoh, M, Ogunbodede E, Adeniyi A.  2014.  Integration of Oral Health into Primary Health Care System: Views of Primary Health Care Workers in Lagos State, Nigeria, 2014/03/05. journal of public health in africa. 5:35. Abstract

The limited access to oral health care in developing countries can be greatly improved by integrating oral health into the Primary Health Care (PHC) system. This study was designed to assess the views of PHC workers on integrating oral health care into the PHC system. A self-administered questionnaire sur- vey was conducted in two selected local govern- ment areas of Lagos State. The instrument contained three sections assessing socio- demographic features, knowledge of common oral diseases and views on integration of oral health into PHC respectively. The mean knowl- edge score was 7.75 (SD=±1.81), while 60.4% of the respondents had average knowledge scores. Educational status (P=0.018) and des- ignation (P=0.033) were significantly related to the mean knowledge scores. There was no significant difference in the oral health knowl- edge of the various cadres (P=0.393). Majority (85.4%) of the respondents were willing to include oral health education in their job schedule and 82% believed they needed more training on oral health. The knowledge of the respondents on the causes of the common oral diseases was deficient. Oral health education should be included in the future curriculum of these personnel.

San-Martin, L, Castaño A, Bravo M, Tavares M, Niederman R, Ogunbodede E.  2013.  Dental sealant knowledge, opinion, values and practice of Spanish dentists, 2013/02/08. BMC oral health. 13:12. Abstract

BackgroundMultiple guidelines and systematic reviews recommend sealant use to reduce caries risk. Yet, multiple reports also indicate that sealants are significantly underutilized. This study examined the knowledge, opinions, values, and practice (KOVP) of dentists concerning sealant use in the southwest region of Andalusia, Spain. This is a prelude to the generation of a regional plan for improving children’s oral health in Andalusia.
Methods
The survey’s target population was dentists working in western Andalusia, equally distributed in the provinces of Seville, Cadiz, and Huelva (N=2,047). A convenience sample of meeting participants and meeting participant email lists (N=400) were solicited from the annual course on Community and Pediatric Dentistry. This course is required for all public health sector dentists, and is open to all private sector dentists. Information on the dentist’s KOVP of sealants was collected using four-part questionnaire with 31, 5-point Likert-scaled questions.
Results
The survey population demographics included 190 men (48%) and 206 women (52%) with an average clinical experience of 10.6 (± 8.4) years and 9.3 (± 7.5) years, respectively. A significant sex difference was observed in the distribution of place of work (urban/suburb) (p=0.001), but no sex differences between working sector (public/private). The mean ± SD values for each of the four KOVP sections for pit and fissure sealants were: knowledge = 3.57 ± 0.47; opinion = 2.48 ± 0.47; value = 2.74 ± 0.52; and practice = 3.48 ± 0.50. No sex differences were found in KOVP (all p >0.4). Independent of sex: knowledge statistically differed by years of experience and place of work; opinion statistically differed by years of experience and sector; and practice statistically differed by years of experience and sector. Less experienced dentists tended to have slightly higher scores (~0.25 on a Likert 1–5 scale). Statistically significant correlations were found between knowledge and practice (r=0.44, p=0.00) and between opinion and value (r=0.35, p=0.00).
Conclusions
The results suggest that, similar to other countries, Andalusian dentists know that sealants are effective, have neutral to positive attitudes toward sealants; though, based on epidemiological studies, underuse sealants. Therefore, methods other than classical behavior change (eg: financial or legal mechanisms) will be required to change practice patterns aimed at improving children's oral health.

San-Martin, L, Castaño A, Bravo M, Tavares M, Niederman R, Ogunbodede E.  2013.  Dental sealant knowledge, opinion, values and practice of Spanish dentists, 2013/02/08. BMC oral health. 13:12. Abstract

BackgroundMultiple guidelines and systematic reviews recommend sealant use to reduce caries risk. Yet, multiple reports also indicate that sealants are significantly underutilized. This study examined the knowledge, opinions, values, and practice (KOVP) of dentists concerning sealant use in the southwest region of Andalusia, Spain. This is a prelude to the generation of a regional plan for improving children’s oral health in Andalusia.
Methods
The survey’s target population was dentists working in western Andalusia, equally distributed in the provinces of Seville, Cadiz, and Huelva (N=2,047). A convenience sample of meeting participants and meeting participant email lists (N=400) were solicited from the annual course on Community and Pediatric Dentistry. This course is required for all public health sector dentists, and is open to all private sector dentists. Information on the dentist’s KOVP of sealants was collected using four-part questionnaire with 31, 5-point Likert-scaled questions.
Results
The survey population demographics included 190 men (48%) and 206 women (52%) with an average clinical experience of 10.6 (± 8.4) years and 9.3 (± 7.5) years, respectively. A significant sex difference was observed in the distribution of place of work (urban/suburb) (p=0.001), but no sex differences between working sector (public/private). The mean ± SD values for each of the four KOVP sections for pit and fissure sealants were: knowledge = 3.57 ± 0.47; opinion = 2.48 ± 0.47; value = 2.74 ± 0.52; and practice = 3.48 ± 0.50. No sex differences were found in KOVP (all p >0.4). Independent of sex: knowledge statistically differed by years of experience and place of work; opinion statistically differed by years of experience and sector; and practice statistically differed by years of experience and sector. Less experienced dentists tended to have slightly higher scores (~0.25 on a Likert 1–5 scale). Statistically significant correlations were found between knowledge and practice (r=0.44, p=0.00) and between opinion and value (r=0.35, p=0.00).
Conclusions
The results suggest that, similar to other countries, Andalusian dentists know that sealants are effective, have neutral to positive attitudes toward sealants; though, based on epidemiological studies, underuse sealants. Therefore, methods other than classical behavior change (eg: financial or legal mechanisms) will be required to change practice patterns aimed at improving children's oral health.

Folayan, M, Orenuga O, Bankole O, Oziegbe E, Denloye O, Oredugba F.  2013.  1000 Multiple Response Questions in Paediatric Dentistry. , 400 Ser Avenue, Suite 1600, Hauppauge, NY, 11788.: Nova Science Publishers Inc
Bamire, AS, Abaidoo R, Jemo M, Abdoulaye T, Yusuf A, Nwoke OC.  2012.  Profitability analysis of commercial chemical and biological crop products among farm households in agro-ecological zones of West Africa, 2012/06/19. 7:3385-3394. Abstract

This paper evaluates the costs and returns incurred by the use of chemical and biological crop products among households in five selected Compro communities in the derived, Southern Guinea, Northern Guinea, Sudan and Sahel Savanna agro-ecological zones (AEZs) in West Africa. Sixty households were randomly selected in each of the communities to give a total of 300 households. Data were collected on the characteristics of the chemical products, households' socio-economic variables such as age and education, as well as, on farm input and output quantities and prices in the 2009/2010 periods using a pre-tested questionnaire. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and budgetary techniques. The Results obtained show a male dominant, fairly literate farming household, with small landholdings (comprising mainly cereal and legume fields) that are predominantly inherited and located far away from the homestead. Inorganic fertilizers, organic manure, improved seeds and pesticides are known as commercial inputs/ products used on farmers' fields, while agrolizer, apron plus and boost extra are the emerging products. The average quantity of inputs applied varied across the zones. The total quantity of inorganic fertilizer applied on the fields was highest in the NGS (924 kg) and lowest in the Sudan (676 kg). However, fertilizer application per hectare by respondents was below recommended dosages across the zones. The emerging chemical inputs (Agrolizer, Boost Extra and Apron Plus) were used only in Compro communities in the derived savanna (DS) and southern guinea savanna (SGS) by a small number of households. The results obtained from budgetary analysis show that gross margin per hectare was highest in the SGS ($ 254) where the emerging inputs were used by 41.7% of the households and lowest in the Sahel ($ 76). Organic fertilizer was used only in small quantities in the AEZs. Total variable costs accounted for more than 30% of revenue generated, and labour and fertilizer accounted for the highest percentage of these costs. The study concludes that promoting the emerging chemical inputs through increased accessibility and farmers' training on their appropriate agronomic use would increase farmers' income generating potentials for sustainable crop production across the AEZs.

Adesina, F, Odekunle T, Ajayi O, Eludoyin A, Babatimehin O, DAMI A, Sanni M, Aloba O, Magare A, Adetiloye OT.  2010.  Adaptation Strategies of Action for Nigeria, 2010/06/18. Abstract
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Adesina, F, Odekunle T, Ajayi O, Eludoyin A, Babatimehin O, DAMI A, Sanni M, Aloba O, Magare A, Adetiloye OT.  2010.  Adaptation Strategies of Action for Nigeria, 2010/06/18. Abstract
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Adesina, F, Odekunle T, Ajayi O, Eludoyin A, Babatimehin O, DAMI A, Sanni M, Aloba O, Magare A, Adetiloye OT.  2010.  Adaptation Strategies of Action for Nigeria, 2010/06/18. Abstract
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Musa, N, Babalola O, Oyebisi OO.  2010.  Competencies Required of Quantity Surveying, 2010/01/01. Abstract
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Bamise, CT, Bada TA, Bamise F, Ogunbodede E.  2008.  Dental Care Utilization and Satisfaction of Residential University Students, 2008/09/01. The Libyan journal of medicine. 3:140-3. Abstract

The objective of this study was to provide information on the level of utilization and satisfaction of residential university students with the dental services provided by the dental clinic of a teaching hospital. VOLUNTEERS AND MATERIAL: A stratified sampling technique was used to recruit volunteers from the outpatient clinic of the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Information was collected by a self-administered questionnaire composed of questions that measure the level of utilization and satisfaction with the dental services provided. Questionnaires were provided to 650 randomly chosen students residing in the University hostels. There were 39 refusals, and 6 incomplete questionnaires were discarded. This left a sample size of 605 volunteers.Forty seven students (7.8%) indicated that they visited the dental hospital within the last 12 months. Males and females utilized the dental services equally, and utilization increased with age and the number of years spent on campus. Anticipation of painful dental treatment, high dental charges, long waiting times and being too busy for a dental visit were cited as the most important impediments to seeking dental treatment. Females expressed greater satisfaction with the services.
Dental service utilization among the students was found to be low. Oral health awareness campaigns, improving the quality of the services, and shortening the waiting time are expected to increase service utilization and satisfaction.

Bamise, CT, Bada TA, Bamise F, Ogunbodede E.  2008.  Dental Care Utilization and Satisfaction of Residential University Students, 2008/09/01. The Libyan journal of medicine. 3:140-3. Abstract

The objective of this study was to provide information on the level of utilization and satisfaction of residential university students with the dental services provided by the dental clinic of a teaching hospital. VOLUNTEERS AND MATERIAL: A stratified sampling technique was used to recruit volunteers from the outpatient clinic of the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospital Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Information was collected by a self-administered questionnaire composed of questions that measure the level of utilization and satisfaction with the dental services provided. Questionnaires were provided to 650 randomly chosen students residing in the University hostels. There were 39 refusals, and 6 incomplete questionnaires were discarded. This left a sample size of 605 volunteers.Forty seven students (7.8%) indicated that they visited the dental hospital within the last 12 months. Males and females utilized the dental services equally, and utilization increased with age and the number of years spent on campus. Anticipation of painful dental treatment, high dental charges, long waiting times and being too busy for a dental visit were cited as the most important impediments to seeking dental treatment. Females expressed greater satisfaction with the services.
Dental service utilization among the students was found to be low. Oral health awareness campaigns, improving the quality of the services, and shortening the waiting time are expected to increase service utilization and satisfaction.

De Vries(nci, J, Murtomaa H, Butler(com M, Cherrett(nci H, Ferrillo(nci P, Ferro M, Gadbury-Amyot C, Haden K, Manogue M, Mintz J, E. Mulvihill(nci J, Murray(nci B, Nattestad A, Nielsen(nci D, Ogunbodede E, Parkash H, Plasschaert(nci F, T. Reed(nci M, L. Rupp(com R, Shanley(nci D.  2008.  The Global Network on Dental Education: a new vision for IFDEA, 2008/02/15. European Journal of Dental Education. 12:167-175. Abstract

The advent of globalization has changed our perspectives radically. It presents increased understanding of world affairs, new challenges and exciting opportunities. The inequitable distribution and use of finite energy resources and global warming are just two examples of challenges that can only be addressed by concerted international collaboration. Globalization has become an increasingly important influence on dentistry and dental education. The International Federation for Dental Educators and Associations (IFDEA) welcomes the challenges it now faces as a player in a complex multifaceted global community. This report addresses the new circumstances in which IFDEA must operate, taking account of the recommendations made by other working groups. The report reviews the background and evolution of IFDEA and describes the extensive developments that have taken place in IFDEA over the past year with the introductions of a new Constitution and Bylaws overseen by a newly established Board of Directors. These were the consequence of a new mission, goals and objectives for IFDEA. An expanded organization is planned using http://www.IFDEA.org as the primary instrument to facilitate the exchange of knowledge, programmes and expertise between colleagues and federated associations throughout the world, thereby promoting higher standards in oral health through education in low-, middle- and high-income countries of the world. Such aspirations are modified by the reality and enormity of poverty-related global ill health.

Bamise, CT, Ogunbodede E, Olusile A, Esan T.  2007.  Erosive Potential of Soft Drinks in Nigeria, 2007/01/01. World J Med Sci. 2 Abstract

The aim of this study was to assess the erosive potential of some soft drinks commonly consumed in Nigeria. A range of popular carbonated drinks (cola and non-cola) and fruit juices were selected. On two occasions, the followings were determined; (1) the pH, measured by a digital pH meter on opening of th e packaging can or bottle. (2) The volume of 1.0M sodium hydroxide required to raise the pH of 50 ml of the drinks to pH 5.5 and pH 7.0. The pH before titration ranges from 2.70 to 4.48 for the carbonated drinks and 3.54-3.91 for the fruit juices. The soft drinks and the fruit juices investigated had pH before titration lower than the critical pH 5.5 for enamel dissolution. The volume of 1.0M sodium hydroxide required to bring the drinks to pH 5.5 ranged from 0.5 to 6.1mls and 1.8 to 8.2 mls of the base needed to neutralize the drinks to pH 7.0. The fruit juices needed the most base to neutralize its acidity. Despite having a lower pH than the fruit drinks, the carbonated drinks required a relatively lower base to neutralize. This study concludes that all the popular soft drinks in Nigeria selected for this study had significant erosive potential. They had pH below the critical pH of enamel dissolution. The erosive potential of the fruit juices was more than the carbonated cola and non-cola drinks. This information will be of use to clinicians when counseling patients with tooth surface loss.

Bamise, CT, Ogunbodede E, Olusile A, Esan T.  2007.  Erosive Potential of Soft Drinks in Nigeria, 2007/01/01. World J Med Sci. 2 Abstract

The aim of this study was to assess the erosive potential of some soft drinks commonly consumed in Nigeria. A range of popular carbonated drinks (cola and non-cola) and fruit juices were selected. On two occasions, the followings were determined; (1) the pH, measured by a digital pH meter on opening of th e packaging can or bottle. (2) The volume of 1.0M sodium hydroxide required to raise the pH of 50 ml of the drinks to pH 5.5 and pH 7.0. The pH before titration ranges from 2.70 to 4.48 for the carbonated drinks and 3.54-3.91 for the fruit juices. The soft drinks and the fruit juices investigated had pH before titration lower than the critical pH 5.5 for enamel dissolution. The volume of 1.0M sodium hydroxide required to bring the drinks to pH 5.5 ranged from 0.5 to 6.1mls and 1.8 to 8.2 mls of the base needed to neutralize the drinks to pH 7.0. The fruit juices needed the most base to neutralize its acidity. Despite having a lower pH than the fruit drinks, the carbonated drinks required a relatively lower base to neutralize. This study concludes that all the popular soft drinks in Nigeria selected for this study had significant erosive potential. They had pH below the critical pH of enamel dissolution. The erosive potential of the fruit juices was more than the carbonated cola and non-cola drinks. This information will be of use to clinicians when counseling patients with tooth surface loss.

Salami, A. T., Balogun EE.  2006.  Utilization of NigeriaSat-1 and other Satellites for Monitoring Deforestation and Biodiversity Loss in Nigeria, . : A Monograph Published by National Space Research and Development Agency, Federal Ministry of Science and Technology, Abuja
Adeyemo, R, Bamire AS.  2005.  Saving and Investment Patterns of Cooperative Farmers in Southwestern Nigeria, 2005/11/01. 11:183-192. Abstract

This study examined the pattern of saving and investment among four hundred cooperative farmers in southwestern Nigeria. Data were collected using structured questionnaires. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and multiple regression technique. Results show that cooperative farmers in southwestern Nigeria are mostly males, literate and of average age of 47 years. About 40% of total capital borrowed was expended on farm work and mean annual total investment was N75,043.00, with cooperative farmers earning more than 3 times the investment made. Average annual savings was N31,572.00 and this increased in proportion to annual incomes in the area. However, the unavailability and inadequacy of credit was a major problem of the farmers. Different factors influenced cooperative farmers’ saving and investment patterns. Income, loan repayment and amount of money borrowed were significant variables that influenced saving patterns while the fund borrowed significantly influenced investment patterns. These factors therefore have to be considered in designing strategies aimed at improving the saving and investment patterns of cooperative farmers in southwestern Nigeria. Additionally, the saving and investment level of the cooperative farmers can be enhanced if loans are adequately made available and proper supervision and monitoring of funds for specified production purposes are put in place.

Bukar, A, S Danfillo I, Adeleke OA, Ogunbodede E.  2004.  Traditional oral health practices among Kanuri women of Borno State, Nigeria, 2004/09/01. Odonto-stomatologie tropicale = Tropical dental journal. 27:25-31. Abstract

A structured questionnaire was administered on 495 women (urban 339, rural 156) from two LGAs of Borno State, Nigeria, using the interviewer method. The age range of the subjects was 12 to 80 years with a mean age (+/- SD) of 35.7 +/- 13.44 years. Majority (83.5%) did not have any formal education. Oral hygiene tools used by the respondents included toothbrush/paste 36 (7.9%), chewing stick 250 (54.9%), charcoal 159 (34.9%) and ordinary water 10 (2.2%). Of those using chewing sticks; 168 (67.2%) use Salvadora persica, 36 (14.4%) use Azadirachta indica and 46 (18.4%) use Eucalyptus camaldulensis. Forty (8.1%) of the respondents do not clean their teeth at all. Strong association was found between choice of teeth cleaning material and educational level (P=0.000). Three hundred and one (60.8%) of the respondents stain their teeth with flowers of Solanum incanum or Nicotania tabacum while, 218 (44.0%) perform tattooing of lip or gingivae and of this number 213 (97.7%) performed tattooing before marriage. Tattooing is usually performed without local anaesthesia with thorns of Balanites aegyptiaca and a mixture of charcoal & seeds of Acacia nilotica var. tomentosa as pigments. It is concluded that traditional oral health practices still constitute important part of the lifestyle in the study population.

Book Chapter
Folayan, M, Haire B, Peterson K, Yakubu A, Tegli J, Brown B.  2019.  Chapter 17: Criminalisation and "Reckless" Ebola Transmission: Theorizing Ethical Obligations to Seek Care, 2019/07/01. Abstract
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Bernard, OT.  2018.  The Construction of Poverty in Selected Yoruba Written Poetry. Poverty and the Humanities. , Ile-Ife: The Faculty of Arts, Obafemi Awolowo University
Ayanlade, A, Jegede MO, Borisade PB.  2015.  Geoinformatics in Eco-climatic Studies. In Mehdi Khosrow-Pour (ed), Information Science and Technology, Third Edition. , Hershey PA, USA: IGI, USA Abstract

Background

Geoinformatics is a modern technology that provides accurate means of measuring the extent and pattern of changes, and other related information about environment (Boakye et al., 2008). The term “Geoinformation” consists of two main words: “Geo” which means earth’s surface or the environment; and “informatics” stands for fact about something. Thus, Geoinformation is the science and technology of communicating the evidences about the state of the earth’s surface. It is known for technological robustness to assess spatial and temporal change occurring on the earth’s surface (Yang & Liu, 2005; Ehlers, 2008). In the recent years, Geoinformatics has been used to provide electronic representation about earth’s surface and man’s interaction with the earth. Geoinformatics has emerged in the last two decades as an exciting multi-disciplinary endeavour, spanning such areas as Geography, Cartography, Remote Sensing, Image Processing, Environmental Sciences and Computer Aspects of environmental studies.

In general, the science and technology of Geoinformatics encompasses application of remote sensing and GIS data and methodology. GIS is an acronym that stands for Geographic Information Systems while the remote sensing data are those data collected through various devices without human (researcher) contact with field. GIS, in actual sense, is not a new development, it is only recently that it has gained widespread acceptance as a tool to assess both spatial and non-spatial issues. GIS was initially referred to as the management of information with a geographic component primarily stored in vector form with associated attributes. This definition quickly became too limiting with advances in software and recent digital ideas about earth. GIS involves spatiotemporal data analysis using software, hardware, people and approaches to acquire, store, update and manipulate for presenting information about the human environment. GIS could be seen as a digital computing environment and human interactions with the environment. For environmental change analysis, GIS uses both remote sensing and non-remote sensing data. Non-remote sensing data may include field observation, topographic, geological and edaphic data. It may also include terrain data, as well as socio-economic survey data, and reports relating to human environmental relation. Though non-remote sensing data are those data acquired by other means than remote sensing approach, they are sometimes used in Geoinformatics analysis, for identification and interpretation of environmental features and their significant change over time (Campbell 2002). In general, it has been shown in several other recent studies that Geoinformatics is not only good for preparing precise environmental change assessment, but also for observing changes at regular intervals of time, it is cost and time effective (Kreuter et al., 2011; Ahmad, 2012; Aguirre-Gutiérrez et al., 2012; Avitabile et al., 2012).