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2021
El Tantawi, M, Folayan M, Oginni O, Adeniyi A, Mapayi B, Yassin R, Chukwumah N, Sam-Agudu N.  2021.  Association between mental health, caries experience and gingival health of adolescents in sub-urban Nigeria, 2021/04/30. 21 Abstract
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Omeje, U, Famurewa B, Agbara R, Fomete B, Suleiman A, Bardi M, Owobu T.  2021.  Mandibular fractures in Kano, Northwest Nigeria: aetiology and pattern of presentation, 2021/04/30. Abstract

Background:Mandibular fractures are universal in distribution but its aetiologies and presentation patterns differ from one country to another because of varying socioeconomic, cultural and geographical factors. We analysed the aetiological factors and presentation patterns of mandibular fractures in a tertiary hospital at Nigeria's second largest city.
Methods:
Patients with isolated mandibular fractures at Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano were prospectively reviewed over a 12-months period. Patients' demographic information and fracture characteristics (aetiology, site, pattern and number of fracture) were recorded and analysed.
Results:
One hundred and forty eight patients presented with 180 mandibular fractures. There were eight fold higher men with mandibular fractures than women (M: F = 8.3:1) with highest incidence in third decade of life. Road traffic accidents (84.46%) was the major aetiology while iatrogenic fracture (0.68%) was found in one patient. Mandibular body was the most fractured site (41.11%) with parasymphyseal and angle regions accounting for 27.78% and 23.89% of total recorded fractures respectively.
Conclusions:
Mandibular fractures in Kano, Northwest Nigeria occurred predominantly in men in the third decade and are mostly caused by road traffic accidents. The majority of these fractures involved the mandibular body.

Folayan, M, El Tantawi M, M. Aly N, Adeniyi A, Oziegbe E, Arowolo O, Alade M, Mapayi B, Chukwumah N, Oginni O, Sam-Agudu N.  2021.  Associations between a history of sexual abuse and dental anxiety, caries experience and oral hygiene status among adolescents in sub-urban South West Nigeria, 2021/04/19. 21 Abstract
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Adewumi, A, Adetona R, Ogundare B.  2021.  On Closed-Form Solutions to Integro-Differential Equations, 2021/04/04. Abstract

This paper presents an iterative technique based on homotopy analysis method for solving system of Volterra Integro-differential equations. The technique provides us series solutions to the problems which are combined with the diagonal Pad\'e approximants and Laplace transform to obtain closed-form solutions. The technique is effectively applied on system of linear and nonlinear Volterra Integro-differential equations which eventually yield closed-form solutions of the problems and this technique is also extended to boundary value problem for the Integro-differential equation related to Blasius problem. An interesting comparison of the present solution is made with solutions of other methods and it is observed that the results are in excellent agreement with other methods in the literature.

Ademola, A.  2021.  Asymptotic behaviour of solutions to certain nonlinear third order neutral functional differential equation, 2021/04/01. 7:e06615. Abstract

This paper presents asymptotic behaviour of solution to certain nonlinear nonautonomous neutral functional differential equation of the third order. The third order functional differential equation is cut back to system of first order and used together with a quadratic function to acquire suitable complete Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional. This functional is tested and employed to set up conditions on the nonlinear terms to guarantee stability, asymptotic stability, uniform stability, uniform asymptotic stability of the trivial solution, ultimate boundedness and uniform ultimate boundedness of the nontrivial solutions of the equations under consideration. The results of this paper are new as there are no existing results on the type of equation discussed. Examples are also given to validate the theoretical results.

Ademola, A.  2021.  Stability, boundedness and existence of unique periodic solutions to a class of fourth order functional differential equations, 2021/04/01. 40:271-303. Abstract

In this paper a novel class of fourth order functional differential equations is discussed. By reducing the fourth order functional differential equation to system of first order, a suitable complete Lyapunov functional is constructed and employed to obtain sufficient conditions that guarantee existence of a unique periodic solution, asymptotic and uniform asymptotic stability of the zero solutions, uniform boundedness and uniform ultimate boundedness of solutions. The obtained results are new and include many prominent results in literature. Finally, two examples are given to show the feasibility and reliability of the theoretical results.

Folayan, M, El Tantawi M, Chukwumah N, Alade M, Oginni O, Mapayi B, Arowolo O, Sam-Agudu N.  2021.  Individual and familial factors associated with caries and gingivitis among adolescents resident in a semi-urban community in South-Western Nigeria, 2021/03/27. 21 Abstract
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Bright, B, Babalola C, Sam-Agudu N, Onyeaghala A, Olatunji A, Aduh U, Sobande P, Crowell T, Tebeje Y, Phillip S, Ndembi N, Folayan M.  2021.  COVID-19 preparedness: capacity to manufacture vaccines, therapeutics and diagnostics in sub-Saharan Africa, 2021/03/03. 17 Abstract
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Folayan, M, El Tantawi M, Oginni O, Oziegbe E, Mapayi B, Arowolo O, Adeniyi A, Sam-Agudu N.  2021.  Oral health practices and oral hygiene status as indicators of suicidal ideation among adolescents in Southwest Nigeria, 2021/02/25. 16:e0247073. Abstract
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Danjuma, D-A, Maza D, Stephen O, Akinlade G, Maza S, Olukotun G, Olubunmi A.  2021.  American Journal of Mathematical and Computer Modelling A Human Physiologically-based Bio-kinetic Model for Cadmium A Human Physiologically-based Bio-kinetic Model for, 2021/02/18. 6:9-13. Abstract

A physiologically-based bio-kinetic (PBBK) model, capable of simulating the absorption, distribution, and elimination of cadmium in humans has been developed. The formulation of this model was based on human data cleaned from literature. The liver, kidney, lung, artery, vein, stomach, small intestine and remainder of the body (other tissues not modelled explicitly) were modelled as compartments. While transfer rate coefficients were used to describe the kinetics of cadmium in the gastrointestinal track, the model used blood flow rates and partition coefficients rather than the traditional transfer rate coefficients to describe the distribution and accumulation of the chemical into critical organs such as liver, kidney and remainder of the body. A perfusion rate-limited kinetics model was assumed for these critical organs, where each of these tissues was regarded as a well-stirred compartment, without any concentration gradient within the compartment. The partition coefficients for critical organs modelled, along with transfer rate coefficients describing oral ingestion and inhalation were estimated by fitting the simulated concentration of cadmium in the liver, kidney and urine to observed concentrations found in literature. The model was capable of simulating, to a good degree of success, the results of empirical observations and other simulations found in literature. Simulations by the model also indicate that the partition coefficient of cadmium for the kidney, liver and other critical organs was higher in smokers.

Folayan, M, El Tantawi M, Chukwumah N, Alade M, Mapayi B, Oginni O, Arowolo O, Sam-Agudu N.  2021.  Associations between depression and gingivitis among adolescents resident in semi-urban South-West Nigeria, 2021/02/08. 21 Abstract
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Ammar, N, M. Aly N, Folayan M, Khader Y, Mohebbi S, Attia S, Howaldt H-P, Böttger S, Virtanen J, Madi M, Maharani D, Rahardjo A, Khan I, Al-Batayneh O, Rashwan M, Pavlić V, Cicmil S, Noritake K, Galluccio G, El Tantawi M.  2021.  Perceived Preparedness of Dental Academic Institutions to Cope with the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Multi-Country Survey, 2021/02/04. 18:1445. Abstract
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Owojuyigbe, A, Adenekan A, Kawamae K, Suzuki H, Aaron O, Owojuyigbe T.  2021.  Cerebral oximetry in healthy adults: A comparison of three commercial Near-Infrared Spectrophotometers, 2021/02/01. 28:37-44. Abstract

Background: Cerebral oximetry is increasingly becoming a desirable form of monitoring inanaesthesia and critical care. Familiarity with normal values for each device is therefore important. We compared NIRO 300 and INVOS 5100 with the novel MASIMO O3 cerebral oximeter.
Methods: Regional cerebral oxygen saturations (rScO2) of nine healthy volunteers were
measured using NIRO 300, INVOS 5100, and MASIMO O3 under various conditions of hyperoxia, hypocapnia, and change in head position. Changes in vital signs and rScO2 were compared. Reliability analyses of the NIRS devices were performed using Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC) estimates at 95% confidence interval based on 2-way mixed-effects model, multiple rater, and absolute-agreement and consistency selections. P <0.05 was considered statistically significant for this study.
Results: The mean (SD) baseline values from NIRO 300 and INVOS 5100 were comparable
[73.8% (4.2%) vs 73.4% (5.6%) respectively, (p = 0.84)]. The baseline from MASIMO O3 [66.8% (3.9%)] was significantly lower compared to NIRO 300 (p = 0.002), and INVOS 5100 (p = 0.011). Changes in head position were not associated with statistically significant changes in NIRS values (p > 0.05). Significant increases were recorded for each of the NIRS devices at FiO2 = 0.45 and FiO2 = 1 (p = 0.0001) and during supine hyperventilation (p = 0.0001). The Intraclass Correlation Coefficients (ICC) estimates based on 2-way mixed-effects model suggested poor absoluteagreement (0.63; 95% CI = 0.16 - 0.81), but good consistency (0.81; 95% CI = 0.77 - 0.85). Absolute-agreement and consistency tests for NIRO 300 and INVOS 5100 pairs were moderate (0.74; 95% CI = 0.68 - 0.79).
Conclusion: Findings of this study affirm that different NIRS devices give different estimates but similar trends during various interventions. Values from the novel MASIMO O3 were generally lower than NIRO 300 and INVOS 5100.

Owojuyigbe, A, Adenekan A, Kawamae K, Suzuki H, Aaron O, Owojuyigbe T.  2021.  Cerebral oximetry in healthy adults: A comparison of three commercial Near-Infrared Spectrophotometers, 2021/02/01. 28:37-44. Abstract
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Omeje, U, Famurewa B, Adebola AR, Agbara R, Amole O, Fomete B, Suleiman A.  2021.  Clinicopathologic features of forehead prayer marks in Kano, Northwest Nigeria, 2021/02/01. 2:100048. Abstract

Prayer marks are asymptomatic nodular and cyst like swellings or callosities with or without chronic skin changes attributable to repeated, prolonged pressure and friction exerted on bony prominences when praying on hard surfaces. This study aimed to describe the clinical and pathological features of forehead prayer marks in Kano, Northwest Nigeria. A retrospective review of Muslims with regular praying habits who presented to the maxillofacial surgery clinic of Murtala Mohammed Specialist Hospital, Kano within a five year (January 2014-December 2018) period on account of central forehead nodular prayer marks was conducted. Biographic data, duration, size, consistency and histological diagnoses of forehead prayer marks were retrieved and analysed. Of the 26 patients with forehead prayer marks, there were 19 men (M: F = 2.7:1). The mean age was 42 ± 3 years and there ages ranged from 15 to 62 years. The mean duration and size of the swellings were 1 ± 5.4 years and 2.5 ± 3.1cm respectively. The consistency of the lesions was mostly soft to firm (n= 23). Seventeen of the lesions were histologically diagnosed as lipoma. Others were fibroma, soft tissue cysts, eosinophilic granuloma and osteoma. Forehead prayer marks are more common in men than women with highest occurrence in fifth decade of life. Lipoma was the commonest post-excision histological diagnosis of forehead prayer marks.

Onwuka, C, Ayoola O, Adekanle O, Famurewa O, Abidoye I.  2021.  Renal arterial resistance index among subjects with liver cirrhosis in a Nigerian population, 2021/02/01. Abstract

Purpose:To describe the relationship between renal artery resistance index (RARI) and liver function based on Child-Pugh system among patients with liver cirrhosis (LC) in Southwest Nigeria.
Methods:
About 50 patients with LC and 50 controls were consecutively recruited into this prospective comparative case control study. Each LC patient was classed based on Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) system after relevant tests. Subjects underwent abdominal ultrasonography with triplex Doppler examination of the right kidney to obtain RARI.
Results:
About 50 cirrhotic and 50 controls completed the study. Age range of cirrhotic subjects was 19-69 years (mean ± SD = 47.5 ± 13.3) while that of controls was 18-69 years (46.9 ± 15.0). RARI was higher (P = <.001) in patients with LC (0.68) than in controls (0.57). RARI was also significantly higher (P = <.001) in cirrhotic subjects in CTP class C (0.72) than in those in classes B (0.66) and A (0.58). Additionally, RARI showed significant correlation with CTP total score (r = .662; P = <.001), serum bilirubin (r = .297; P = .036), serum albumin (r = -.494; P = <.001), serum sodium (r = -.369; P = .008), Model for End Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score (r = .316; P = .026) and MELD-Na score (r = .470; P = .001). RARI showed no significant relationship with serum creatinine (r = .110; P = .445) and blood urea nitrogen (r = .112; P = .437).
Conclusion:
Liver cirrhosis is associated with renovascular changes which manifest as increased resistance in the renal arteries. RARI is a useful noninvasive tool for the assessment of these changes and should be done routinely in the evaluation of patients with LC.

Ogundare, B, Akingbade J.  2021.  Boundedness and Stability Properties of Solutions of Mathematical Model of Measles., 2021/01/31. 52:91-112. Abstract

In this paper, asymptotic stability and global asymptotic stability of solutions to a deterministic and compartmental mathematical model of measles infection is considered using the ideas of the Jacobian determinant as well as the second method of Lyapunov, criteria/conditions that guaranteed asymptotic stability of disease free equilibrium and endemic equilibrium were established. Also the basic reproductive number $R_0$ was obtained. The results in this work compliments existing work and provided further information in controlling the disease in an open population.

Mirzaei_Alavijeh, M, Sbarra A, Rolfe S, Nguyen J, Earl L, Galles N, Marks A, Abbas K, Abbasi-Kangevari M, Abbastabar H, Abd-Allah F, Abdelalim A, Abdollahi M, Abegaz K, Abiy Alemu Meheretu H, Abiy A, Abolhassani H, Guimarães Abreu L, Abrigo M, Reta M.  2021.  Mapping routine measles vaccination in low- and middle-income countries, 2021/01/21. Abstract
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Esan, O, Akinwande IO, Esan OT, Soyoye D.  2021.  Burden of musculoskeletal disorders among diabetics and their functional capacity in Southwest, Nigeria, 2021/01/01. 20:15. Abstract
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Lateef, M, Akinsulore A.  2021.  Covid-19: Implications for Corporate Governance and Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) in Africa, 2021/01/01. 12:139-160. Abstract

The paper examines the implications of COVID-19 for corporate governance and CSR, as well as the responses of corporations in Africa to deal with, support, and complement governments’ efforts in combating the pandemic’s menaces. It outlines some of the challenges and significant improvements that are necessary to shape the future of corporate laws and legal reforms in Africa. The paper concludes that sound corporate governance practice and corporate investment in CSR can help to shape the performance and resilience of corporations in Africa to adverse shocks such as the present COVID-19 pandemic.

Aiyelabola, T, Akinkunmi EO, Michael O.  2021.  Syntheses, Characterization and Biological Activity of Coordination Compounds of Propanedioic Acid and its Mixed Ligand Complexes with N,N'-Dihydroxy-2,3-butanediimine, 2021/01/01. 33:1911-1918. Abstract

The coordination compounds of propanedioic acid with cobalt(II), nickel(II) and copper(II) ions were synthesized using metal:ligand 1:2. In addition to this, mixed ligand complexes using the same metal ions with propanedioic acid as the primary ligand and N,N'-dihydroxy-2,3-butanediimine as the secondary ligand were also synthesized using M:L1:L2 (1:1:1) where L1 = propanedioic acid, L2 = N,N'-dihydroxy-2,3-butanediimine and M = Cu(II), Ni(II) and Cu(II). The synthesized compounds were characterized using FTIR, UV-vis, magnetic susceptibility measurement and percentage metal composition. The ligand and its metal complexes were tested for their cytotoxic and antibacterial activities. Results indicated that a dimeric square planar geometry was assumed by the cobalt(II) and nickel(II) propanedioic acid complexes. Octahedral geometry was proposed for both cobalt(II) and copper(II) mixed ligand complexes. A dinuclear square pyramidal geometry was suggested for the copper(II) propanedioic acid complex and square planar/octahedral geometry for the nickel(II) mixed ligand complex. The copper(II) propanedioic acid complex elicited the best cytotoxic activity. On the other hand, the nickel(II) propanedioic acid complex showed the remarkable antimicrobial activity. The compounds exhibited good antimicrobial activity in most of the cases with the exception of the cobalt(II) propanedioic acid complex. It was concluded that coordination of the ligands to the metal ions lowered the toxicity of the ligands. It was further concluded that the antimicrobial activity of the compounds was partly dependent on the synergism/additive effect of the intrinsic therapeutic properties of the metal ion and the ligands within the coordination sphere of the complexes synthesized. And this is also in part a function of the geometry assumed by the complexes.