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2021
Folayan, M, Olanrewaju I, El Tantawi M, Brown B, M. Aly N, Ezechi O, Abeldaño G, Ara E, Ayanore M, Ellakany P, Gaffar B, Al-Khanati N, Idigbe I, Ishabiyi A, Jafer M, Khan A, Khalid Z, Lawal F, Lusher J, Nguyen A.  2021.  Factors Associated with Financial Security, Food Security and Quality of Daily Lives of Residents in Nigeria during the First Wave of the COVID-19 Pandemic, 2021/07/27. 18:7925. Abstract
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Folayan, M, Ibigbami O, El Tantawi M, Brown B, M. Aly N, Ezechi O, Abeldaño G, Ara E, Ayanore M, Ellakany P, Gaffar B, Al-Khanati N, Idigbe I, Ishabiyi A, Jafer M, Khan A, Khalid Z, Lawal F, Lusher J, Nguyen A.  2021.  Factors Associated with Financial Security, Food Security and Quality of Daily Lives of Residents in Nigeria during the First Wave of the COVID-19 Pandemic, 2021/07/27. 18:7925. Abstract

An online survey was conducted to identify factors associated with financial insecurity, food insecurity and poor quality of daily lives of adults in Nigeria during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. The associations between the outcome (experience of financial loss, changes in food intake and impact of the pandemic on daily lives) and the explanatory (age, sex, education level, anxiety, depression, HIV status) variables were determined using logistic regression analysis. Of the 4439 respondents, 2487 (56.0%) were financially insecure, 907 (20.4%) decreased food intake and 4029 (90.8%) had their daily life negatively impacted. Males (AOR:0.84), people who felt depressed (AOR:0.62) and people living with HIV -PLHIV- (AOR:0.70) had significantly lower odds of financial insecurity. Older respondents (AOR:1.01) had significantly higher odds of financial insecurity. Those depressed (AOR:0.62) and PLHIV (AOR:0.55) had significantly lower odds of reporting decreased food intake. Respondents who felt anxious (AOR:0.07), depressed (AOR: 0.48) and who were PLHIV (AOR:0.68) had significantly lower odds of reporting a negative impact of the pandemic on their daily lives. We concluded the study findings may reflect a complex relationship between financial insecurity, food insecurity, poor quality of life, mental health, and socioeconomic status of adults living in Nigeria during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Maphiri, V, Rutavi G, Sylla N, Adewinbi S, Fasakin O, Man-Yala N.  2021.  Novel Thermally Reduced Graphene Oxide Microsupercapacitor Fabricated via Mask-Free AxiDraw Direct Writing, 2021/07/27. 11:1909. Abstract

We demonstrate a simple method to fabricate all solid state, thermally reduced Graphene Oxide (TRGO) microsupercapacitors (µ-SCs) prepared using the atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (APCVD) and a mask-free axiDraw sketching apparatus. The Fourier transform in-frared spectroscopy (FTIR) shows the extermination of oxygen functional groups as the reducing temperature (RT) increases, while the Raman shows the presence of the defect and graphitic peaks. The electrochemical performance of the µ-SCs showed cyclic voltammetry (CV) potential window of 0-0.8 V at various scan rates of 5-1000 mVs −1 with a rectangular shape, depicting characteristics of electric double layer capacitor (EDLC) behavior. The µ-SC with 14 cm −2 (number of digits per unit area) showed a 46% increment in capacitance from that of 6 cm −2 , which is also higher than the µ-SCs with 22 and 26 cm −2. The TRGO-500 exhibits volumetric energy and power density of 14.61 mW h cm −3 and 142.67 mW cm −3 , respectively. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) showed the decrease in the equivalent series resistance (ESR) as a function of RT due to reduction of the resistive functional groups present in the sample. Bode plot showed a phase angel of −85° for the TRGO-500 µ-SC device. The electrochemical performance of the µ-SC devices can be tuned by varying the RT, number of digits per unity area, and connection configuration (parallel or series).

Folayan, M, Obiyan M, El Tantawi M, Kemoli A, Al-Batayneh O, Gaffar B, Schroth R.  2021.  An ecological study on the association between early childhood caries and intimate partner violence in 20 low- and middle-income countries: 2007-2017, 2021/07/26. 4:39. Abstract
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Adedoja, O, Samways M, Kehinde T.  2021.  Age class of alien tree stands retained for mammal protection have differential effects on flower-visiting insect assemblages, 2021/07/10. Abstract

• Limited sunlight reduces plant productivity and foraging activities of pollinators, such as when alien trees shade out native flowering plants. The conservation management response is to remove the impoverishing effect of the alien tree canopy. However, alien trees can provide benefit for certain species when they provide significant scarce resources. We assess how flower-visiting insects respond to shading from young, small-sized, open canopy vs. mature, tall, closed-canopy alien pine trees retained specifically as refuges for certain rare mammals.• We sampled flower–visitor species diversity and interactions at various distances from pine stands of both sizes in a matrix of low sclerophyllous natural vegetation. We sampled flower–visitors using coloured pan traps and estimated flower–visitor interactions and flower diversity.
• Reduction in percentage light reaching the understorey significantly reduced flower abundance, with zero flowers in tall pine understorey. Flower–visitor species composition differed across sampling locations with increasing distance from tall pine understorey. Although pine tree size led to a decline in flower–visitor interaction frequency and network specialisation in all pine tree stands, some bee species that are mostly tree nesters, were observed in unique interactions in association with tall pines only.
• We show that alien pines, especially tall trees, have an impoverishing effect on flowering plants and flower–visitors. However, these trees also confer benefit to specialised groups such as tree-nesting bees. While active alien pine removal is encouraged where the trees are actively invading, maintaining well-contained small stands is of value for two different taxa of conservation concern.

Jegede, T, Tunde-Ayinmode M, Jegede T, Akinsulore A, Ibigbami O.  2021.  Bullying Behavior Roles and Mental Health Correlates Among Secondary School Students in Ilesa, Nigeria, 2021/07/01. Abstract

Objective: Bullying behaviour is pervasive, cuts across age group, transcends geographical location and its impacts include but not limited to physical or academic snags. The objective of the study is to determine bullying roles and their association with emotional or behavioural problems among adolescents in Ilesa, Nigeria. Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed on 432 senior secondary school students (12-18 years old) in Ilesa (Nigeria). Peer Relationship Questionnaire was used to determine bullying roles and the Strength and Difficulty Questionnaire to measure behavioural problems. Results: Prevalence of bullying behaviour is high. The bully-victims had the highest means score on all subscales except pro-social. Similarly, the bully-victims was significantly associated with all subscales of the SDQ except the pro-social problems at (P< .001), (P=.024), (P= .004), (P= .004), and (P< .001) for conduct, emotional problem, hyperactivity problem, peer relationship problem and the total difficulty score respectively. Conclusion: This shows that participating in bullying behaviour irrespective of the role played increases the likelihood of psychological consequences, especially the bully-victim. There is a need to establish anti-bullying programs in schools to curb this menace and its mental health consequence.

Amarquaye, G, Arrow P, Bansal K, Bedi R, Campus G, Chen KJ, Chibinski A, Chinzorig T, Crystal Y, Duangthip D, Ferri M, Folayan M, Garidkhuu A, Hamama H, Jirarattanasopa V, Kemoli A, Leal S, Leelataweewud P, Chu C-H.  2021.  Global Oral Health Policies and Guidelines: Using Silver Diamine Fluoride for Caries Control, 2021/07/01. 2:685557. Abstract
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Sarfo, F, Akpa O, Ovbiagele B, Akpalu A, Wahab K, Komolafe M, Obiako R, Owolabi L, Osaigbovo G, Jenkins C, Ogbole G, Fakunle A, Tiwari H, Arulogun O, Arnett D, Asowata O, Ogah O, Akinyemi R, Owolabi M.  2021.  Influence of age on links between major modifiable risk factors and stroke occurrence in West Africa, 2021/07/01. 428:117573. Abstract
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Adewole, K, Ogunfowokan A, Olodu M.  2021.  Influence of Health Literacy on Health Promoting Behaviour of Adolescents with and without Obesity, 2021/07/01. 15:100342. Abstract

BackgroundLearning has been associated with human behaviour, and health literacy is vital in an individual’s health promotion and maintenance activities.
Purpose
This study aimed at comparing the health literacy and health-promoting behaviour of adolescents with and without obesity, and to also identify the association between health literacy and health-promoting behaviour of these two groups of adolescents.
Methods
A concurrent mixed-method design was adopted and the study was conducted among150 adolescents with obesity and 150 adolescents without obesity from 15 private secondary schools in Osun State, Nigeria. A structured self-administered questionnaire and an in-depth interview guide were used to collect data on their health literacy levels and health-promoting behaviour.
Results
The findings showed that adolescents without obesity had a higher level of health literacy (70%) compared to their counterparts with obesity (59%). More than half (55.3%) of those with obesity and 35% of those without obesity scored low on health-promoting behaviour scale. Also, there was a significant relationship between health literacy and health-promoting behaviour among adolescents with obesity (r = 0.29; p = 0.001) and those without obesity (r = 0.85, p =0.015).
Conclusion
The study concluded that adolescents with obesity had lower level of health-promoting behaviour despite their high level of health literacy, compared to those without obesity. Irrespective of the adolescent’s obesity status, their health-promoting behaviour is significantly associated with their health literacy. Implication for school nursing practice is documented.

Oloniniyi, I, Ibigbami O, Amiola A, Esan O, Esan O.  2021.  First Episode Psychosis during COVID-19 Pandemic: A Case Series, 2021/06/26. 38:599-603. Abstract

Introduction:Neuropsychiatric events are often associated with viral pandemics. The unexpected turn of events the world over since the onset of the coronavirus pandemic may serve as stressors which can trigger or worsen mental disorders particularly psychosis. There is little or no reports about acute psychosis on the background of this current global pandemic particularly in the African context. The aim of this article describes a case series of acute schizophrenia-like disorder with COVID-19 related psychotic themes in the context of the current pandemic.
Materials and methods:
We present a case series of 2 patients with first episode psychotic illnesses during the COVID-19 pandemic. Both patients presented at the mental health outpatient clinic of the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife, Nigeria.
Results:
Two patients with no previous history of mental illness presented with COVID-19 delusional themes and odd behaviours. Mental state examination revealed abnormalities in behaviour, thought system, perception and cognition. ICD10 diagnosis of Acute and Transient Psychotic disorder was made in both patients. There were no abnormal physical health findings and symptoms resolved with the use of antipsychotics.
Conclusion:
Information on the COVID-19 pandemic may influence the content of psychotic experiences among the general population. A high index of suspicion and acute services are important to ensure prompt intervention and promotion of community mental health. Clinicians need to be well informed to be able to identify what deviates from the norm, and to be able to provide prompt intervention.

Soyoye, D, Abiodun O, Ikem R, Kolawole B, Akintomide A.  2021.  Diabetes and peripheral artery disease: A review, 2021/06/15. 12:827-838. Abstract
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Sartorius, B, VanderHeide J, Yang M, Goosmann E, Hon J, Haeuser E, Chowdhury MAK, Perkins S, Jahagirdar D, Schaeffer L, Serfes A, LeGrand K, Abbastabar H, Hailemariam Z, Eshete A, Abu-Gharbieh E, Accrombessi M, Adebayo O, Adegbosin A.  2021.  Subnational mapping of HIV incidence and mortality among individuals aged 15–49 years in sub-Saharan Africa, 2000–18: a modelling study, 2021/06/05. Abstract
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Faniyi, I, Olofinjana B, Fasakin O, Ajenifuja E, Alo F, Eleruja M, Ajayi E.  2021.  Effects of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide on thermal and mechanical properties of expanded polystyrene-based composites, 2021/06/01. 44 Abstract

Graphene oxide (GO) acts as an insulator but when reduced to reduced graphene oxide (RGO), it has high heat storage capacity. This can result in lowering the phase change temperature when embedded in a material such as expanded polystyrene (EPS), thus making it a good heat-resistance material. In this study, the thermal and the mechanical effects of GO and RGOs over EPS were analysed. GO was synthesized using modified Hummer’s method, while the reduction process was taken through different routes using three different reductants: hydrazine (RGO-HZ), ascorbic acid (RGO-AA) and the extract of Amaranthus hybridus (RGO-AH). The same content of graphite and its derivatives were separately and chemically bonded together with EPS forming composites (i.e., graphite composite, GO composite, RGO-HZ composite, RGO-AA composite and RGO-AH composite) and cast on a mould at room temperature to form a dog-bone shape. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential thermal analysis, scanning electron microscopy and mechanical tests were conducted on ordinary EPS and on each of the composite samples. The results showed a significant enhancement of thermal and mechanical properties of the composites over ordinary EPS.

Chen, KJ, Duangthip D, Gao S, Huang F, Anthonappa R, Oliveira B, Turton B, Durward C, El Tantawi M, Attia D, Heima M, Muthu S, Maharani D, Folayan M, Phantumvanit P, Sitthisettapong T, Innes N, Crystal Y, Ramos-Gomez F, Chu C-H.  2021.  Oral Health Policies to Tackle the Burden of Early Childhood Caries: A Review of 14 Countries/Regions, 2021/06/01. 2:670154. Abstract
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Sartorius, B, VanderHeide J, Yang M, Goosmann E, Hon J, Haeuser E, Chowdhury MAK, Perkins S, Jahagirdar D, Schaeffer L, Serfes A, LeGrand K, Abbastabar H, Hailemariam Z, Eshete A, Abu-Gharbieh E, Accrombessi M, Adebayo O, Adegbosin A.  2021.  Subnational mapping of HIV incidence and mortality among individuals aged 15–49 years in sub-Saharan Africa, 2000–18: a modelling study, 2021/06/01. 8:e363-e375. Abstract
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Soyoye, D, Kolawole B, Ikem R, Ugwu E, Soyoye O, Owolabi F, Anozie C, Amjo O, Ogundele O.  2021.  Screening for Diabetes Mellitus and Hypertension in Ile-Ife - A World Diabetes Day Experience, 2021/05/29. 38:434-438. Abstract

Background and objectives:Non-communicable diseases have emerged as major public health concerns in developing nations, where communicable diseases used to be the major contributor to the public health burden. Diabetes and hypertension contribute significantly to this menace, and they are largely undiagnosed in the affected population. We determined the prevalence of previously diagnosed and undiagnosed hypertension and diabetes mellitus in adult Nigerians.
Methods:
Participants who presented in response to advertisement for the study and gave informed consent were recruited using convenience sampling. Data was collected using a proforma to obtain salient medical and social history. Anthropometric and blood pressure measurements were done. Capillary blood was taken for initial glucose measurements. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was subsequently done in non-diabetics with elevated blood glucose to confirm the diagnosis of diabetes.
Results:
One hundred and thirty-six participants with age range 24 - 90 years were recruited for the study. Participants were mainly females (61.8%). Prevalence of diabetes among study participants was 19.9% (previously diagnosed -16.9% vs undiagnosed - 3.0%) with higher occurrence among males. Hypertension was found in 50.7% of participants; 28.7% were on treatment for hypertension, while 22.0% were newly diagnosed. Diabetes was associated with older age and elevated systolic blood pressure while hypertension was associated with older age, obesity and elevated blood glucose.
Conclusion:
This study showed a high occurrence of diabetes and hypertension among adult Nigerians; hence efforts to address these should be intensified. Targeted screening of people at risk for non-communicable diseases is an added benefit.

Animasahun, L, Taleatu B, Adewinbi S, Bolarinwa HS, Fasasi A.  2021.  Synthesis of SnO2/CuO/SnO2 Multi-layered Structure for Photoabsorption: Compositional and Some Interfacial Structural Studies, 2021/05/29. 3:74-81. Abstract

Many metal oxide heterostructures have been synthesized as mixed oxides or layered structures for photocatalytic, photodegradation of pollutants and light-harvesting applications. However, in the layered structures the effects of interfacial properties and composition have largely not been explored. Hence, the effects of interfacial mixing and diffusion of sandwiched thin CuO layer on optical absorption of as-deposited and heat-treated multi-layered structured SnO2/CuO/SnO2 films were studied. The RBS analysis of the as-deposited films showed the presence of a minute amount of Cu in the surface and bottom SnO2 layers of the structure. We attributed this to inhomogeneous layer thickness evidenced by very low Sn/Cu atoms ratio of the CuO layer. However, the thermal treatment of the layered structure led to pronounced interlayer mixing and consequent formation of SnO2-CuO solid solutions throughout the layered structure. The layer integrity of the inserted CuO of the as-deposited films was very high and the as-deposited structure was far more optically absorbing. However, the annealed structure showed lesser optical absorption because of the onset of interfacial mixing and improved crystallization. This reflected in the optical bandgap variations of the as-deposited and annealed multilayered structures. The significance of this result is that the multi-layered films possess band narrowing – evidence of increased photon absorption - making it a better candidate than pure SnO2 oxide for photocatalysis, photodegradation and photodetection applications. It also pointed to the fact that attention must be paid to effects of heat treatments or annealing when inserting an absorbing layer into a photocatalyst or a material meant for photodegradation or any light-harvesting material.

Folayan, M, El Tantawi M, Virtanen J, Feldens C, Rashwan M, Kemoli A, Villena R, Al-Batayneh O, Amalia R, Gafar B, Mohebbi S, Arheiam A, Daryanavard H, Vukovic A, Schroth R.  2021.  Correction to: An ecological study on the association between universal health service coverage index, health expenditures, and early childhood caries, 2021/05/26. 21 Abstract
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Jiang, CM, Duangthip D, Auychai P, Chiba M, Folayan M, Hamama H, Kamnoedboon P, Lyons K, Matangkasombut O, Mathu-Muju K, Mathur V, Mei ML, Morgan M, Poolthong S, Morankar R, Srinivasan M, Takahashi T, Yaklai S, Zhang S, Lo E.  2021.  Changes in Oral Health Policies and Guidelines During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Frontiers in Oral Health, 2021/05/21. 2 Abstract
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Wuraola, F, Famurewa B, Olasehinde O, Odujoko O, Adesina O, Aregbesola S.  2021.  From the breast to the upper jaw: A rare case of metastatic breast cancer, 2021/05/11. 14:60-63. Abstract

Breast cancer is the commonest malignancy in women globally. Metastasesof advanced breast carcinoma to bones, lungs and liver are well known but
spread to maxillary bone presenting as maxillary sinus and palatal swelling is
rare. We present a case of advanced breast carcinoma in a female Nigerian with
clinical, radiological and histopathological features of lung and right maxillary
bone metastases. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of
metastatic breast cancer to the lungs and maxilla in Nigeria. The debilitating
sequelae of advanced untreated breast carcinoma in a resource limited setting
with suboptimal comprehensive cancer care are highlighted.

Braimah, R, Oladejo T, Olarinoye T, Adetoye A, Osho P, Ramat O, Braimah, R.O..  2021.  A multidisciplinary approach to the management of temporomandibular joint ankylosis in a sickle-cell anemia patient in a resource-limited setting, 2021/05/04. Abstract
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Borisade, T, Odiwe A, Akinwumiju A, Orimoogunje O, Uwalaka N.  2021.  Assessing the impacts of land use on riparian vegetation dynamics in Osun State, Nigeria, 2021/05/01. 5:100099. Abstract

The existence of riparian vegetation is greatly threatened by change in land uses in Nigeria and information on historical management of land use which influences riparian vegetation dynamics is critical to the conservation of plants species diversity. This information is poorly understood especially in Nigeria and by extension in Africa. This study therefore assessed the areas covered by riparian forests in Osun State, Nigeria in order to identify the main drivers of its decline using optical remote sensing data. It also assessed the availability and distribution of the riparian forests over three decades (1986-2016) using Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper (ETM). Results showed that the riparian forests covered 546.18km² (6.40%) with about 308riparian forests distributed across the state in 1986 but had declined to 176 by 2016. Three decades later, areas covered by riparian forests decreased to171.69km² (2.01%), representing a decline of about 69% and was predicted a rapid transition to disturbed lands. Human activities such as logging, farming, grazing and construction have greatly influenced the riparian vegetation cover with obvious decline in extent, distribution and quality. Observation from our case study showed that the disappearance of these forests is taken place at a rate that is faster than the predicted level of the Nigerian riparian forest loss by 2040. Notably deforestation, agriculture and urbanization are the main drivers of this decline, of the African gallery forests.

Orimoogunje, O, Olufemi A, Dada E, Adekunle S, Nene E-O, Isioma N.  2021.  Dynamism of Landscape Transformation in Ibiono-Ibom, Akwa-Ibom State, Nigeria, 2021/05/01. 14:19-38. Abstract

Studies have shown that information on landscape transformation is an important benchmark data set because of its value as an environmental change indicator. Therefore, dynamism of landscape transformation over a 34-year period are analysed for a case study in Ibiono-Ibom, Akwa-Ibom State, Nigeria. The study adopted a mixed method consisting of remote sensing and GIS-based analysis, and semi-structured interviews covering 400 households while factors contributing to landscape structures and changes are studied. The results point out three main driving factors responsible for the landscape transformation in the study area: agricultural practices which lead to intensification of forest resources, riparian vegetation, vegetated wetlands and non-vegetated wetlands; urbanization which modifies the structure and morphology of the landscape, and finally, population growth directly related to massive infrastructural development which encroached on all other land spaces. GIS-based analysis of remotely-sensed data showed that built-up area had increased by 7535.2 ha between 1986 and 2020; shrub and arable land by 1343.9 ha and light forest decreased by 4998.3 ha. While bare-land reduced by 1522.1 ha; vegetated wetland reduced by 1092 ha; water body coverage reduced by 168 ha and non-vegetated wetland size also reduced by 2029.4 ha. Analysis of household survey results revealed that the perceptions of respondents validate the observed patterns during the remotely-sensed data analysis phase of the research, with 54 % (n=400) of respondents reporting a decline in agricultural land use, and 19.3 % (n=400) observing a decline in forest areas in the study area. Furthermore, agricultural intensification, urban development, timber exploitation, firewood collection and increase in settlements were identified as the proximate drivers of these observed landscape transformation dynamics in the study area. The study concluded that the variation in landscape transformation of the study area are clear indication of the extent of biodiversity loss and ecosystem degradation in the study area.

Olorunkosebi, A, Eleruja M, Adedeji A, Olofinjana B, Fasakin O, Omotoso E, Oyedotun K, Ajayi E, Manyala N.  2021.  Optimization of Graphene oxide through various Hummers' methods and comparative reduction using green approach, 2021/05/01. 117:108456. Abstract

Graphene oxide (GO) was synthesized using three techniques and was reduced using two reducers' extracts from neem and pumpkin leaves. The obtained GOs and RGOs were characterized using Fourier infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, UV–visible spectrophotometry, energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results revealed that all the three methods used are capable of producing GO with various levels of oxidation. FTIR spectra of RGOs showed that the CO signature of GOs at 1730–1740 cm⁻¹ were eliminated after reduction. Other characterization results of the RGOs revealed that both the neem and pumpkin extracts are capable of reducing the synthesized GO. With all these, it can be concluded that the extracts of neem and pumpkin are good reducing agents. The neem and pumpkin extracts, which are ecofriendly can replace the use of hazardous chemicals that are not ecofriendly.