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2021
Aluko, OO, Esan OT, Agboola UA, Ajibade AA, John OM, Obadina OD, Afolabi OT.  2021.  {How secured and safe is the sanitation and hygiene services in a maximum-security correctional facility in Southwest Nigeria: a descriptive cross-sectional study}, jul. International Journal of Environmental Health Research. 00:1–18., Number 00: Taylor & Francis AbstractWebsite

Poorly maintained living conditions and infrastructure are the banes of Nigerian prisons. The study investigated its environmental conditions and the prevalent diseases among inmates. The descriptive, cross-sectional study enrolled 420-inmates through a multistage sampling technique. Pre-tested instruments were administered and results presented with descriptive and logistic regression to identify predictors of toilet-cleaning and handwashing practices at P∝0.05. The mean(±SD) age and modal inmates/cell were 30±7.2 years and 36. Most inmates were males (97%), await-trial (79%) and lives in overcrowded cells (58%). Sixty-nine percent of free-cells has pour-flush toilets and 36% waits for 2–5 minutes before accessing toilets. Fifty-three percent of inmates clean latrines with water and soap, 71% burn solid waste while handwashing period-prevalence was 36%. Religion, toilet-cleaning, and education were predictors of handwashing while types of toilets and access predict toilet-cleaning behaviour. Malaria (81.1%) and scabies (7.3%) were endemic. The prison rehabilitation shall satisfy basic life needs and promote prisoners' health.

Aluko, OO, Obafemi TH, Obiajunwa PO, Obiajunwa CJ, Obisanya OA, Odanye OH, Odeleye AO.  2021.  {Solid waste management and health hazards associated with residence around open dumpsites in heterogeneous urban settlements in Southwest Nigeria}, feb. International Journal of Environmental Health Research. :1–16.: Taylor & Francis AbstractWebsite

The existence and multiplication of open dumpsites (ODs) around residential settlements are associated with environmental health outcomes in urbanizing settlements of developing countries. The study assessed existing practice and perceived health hazards of residence around ODs in Nigerian heterogeneous urban settlements. The cross-sectional, mixed-method study administered a validated questionnaire on 195 respondents using a 4-stage sampling technique. Two focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted and analysed by ATLAS.ti software. Continuous and categorical variables were respectively presented by means and proportions; associations among variables were determined by chi-square and logistic regression at P$\alpha$<0.05. Seventy-two per cent of the respondents disposed of solid waste in ODs, despite good knowledge (95%) and a positive attitude (85%) on perceived health-hazards. One-sixth (15%) of respondents were willing to pay for waste collection service and 50% considered burning as an alternative to open dumping. The most and least perceived health outcomes were malaria and breathing difficulties. Improved water sources and skin irritations were significant predictors of sound SWM practices.

2020
Wada, OZ, Oloruntoba EO, Adejumo M, Aluko OO.  2020.  {Classification of Sanitation Services and Students' Sanitation Practices among Schools in Lagos, Nigeria}, sep. Environment and Natural Resources Research. 10:55–68., Number 3 AbstractWebsite

The paucity of information on the number of accessible sanitation facilities in secondary schools in developing countries has hindered efforts in attaining sustainable development in this area. Therefore, this study was designed to bridge that gap. The cross-sectional study utilized a 4-stage sampling technique to select 386 students from schools in Badagry, Lagos. Pre-tested questionnaire and observational checklists were used to obtain data. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression at 5% level of significance. Respondents’ mean age was 15.8±1.5 years and 55.2% were female. On-site observation revealed that all the schools had improved sanitation facilities, while 37% of the available toilet compartments were inaccessible to the students. Majority (85%) of the facilities provided limited service, while 15% provided basic service. The student to toilet ratio for the public school girls and boys were 3191:1 and 642:1 respectively, while the private school had a ratio of 257:1 and 289:1 for girls and boys respectively. Some of the sanitation practices observed in the schools were open defecation (35.4%), toilet avoidance (21%), and prolonged urine and feacal retention (57.4%). Students from the public school were about 3 times more likely to practice open defecation (OR=2.87; CI=1.160-7.095). Also, male students were more likely to practice open defecation (OR=1.72; CI=1.125-2.615). All the schools did not meet the school sanitation standard of 1 toilet to 30 boys/girls set by the Federal Government of Nigeria. Sustainable sanitation-interventions and maintenance schemes are required to safeguard the health of the students and the community at large.

Obebe, OO, Aluko OO, Falohun OO, Akinlabi KB, ThankGod OE.  2020.  {Parasitic contamination and public health risk of commonly consumed vegetables in Ibadan-Nigeria}, jun. PAMJ . 2020; 36:126. 36, Number 126 AbstractWebsite

INTRODUCTION: Vegetables form a major component of the human diet. However, Poor agronomic practices may put consumers at risk of parasitic infections. This study evaluated the parasitic contamination of vegetables grown in selected farms in Ibadan, Nigeria. METHODS: Two hundred and eigthy vegetables: african eggplant (Solanum macrocarpon), lettuce (Lactuca sativa), cucumber (Brassica oleracea), spinach (Amaranthus cruentus), white jute (Corchorus olitorius), pumpkin (Telfaria occidentalis), green pepper (Capsicum sp.), okro (Abelmoschus esculentus), quill grass (Celosia argenta L), tomato (Lycopersicum sativus) were collected from farms within Ibadan. Samples were washed in water, and the resulting washing solution was filtered and centrifuged to concentrate the parasitic stages. Sediments were examined by iodine and modified Ziehl-Neelsen stained smears. RESULTS: parasites were detected in 14 (5.0%, 95% CI 32.6%-67.3%) of samples. The highest contaminated vegetable was White jute 32.1 (95% CI 17.9%-50.6%), followed by pumpkin 7.1(95% CI 1.9-22.6), Quill grass 7.1% (95% CI 1.9-22.6) and lettuce 3.5 (95% CI 0.6-17.7). The commonest parasites were Strongyloides stercoralis larvae 42.9 (95% CI 21.3-67.4), Entamoeba histolytica/E.dipaar 21.4 (95% CI 7.5-47.5), Trichostrongylus spp 21.4 (95% CI 21.3-67.4), and Ascaris sp. 14.3 (95% CI 4.0-39.9). CONCLUSION: these findings provide evidence of contamination of vegetable from farms in Ibadan with parasites of public health importance. Information on best practices should be packaged and disseminated through appropriate channels to enhance positive behavioral change among farmers.

Aluko, OO, Oloruntoba EO, Ana GREE, Hammed TB, Afolabi OT.  2020.  {Characteristics of co-composts produced from raw faecal sludge and organic market waste in Osun State, Southwest Nigeria}, aug. International journal of recycling organic waste in agriculture. 9:333–347., Number 4: Islamic Azad University-Isfahan (Khorasgan) Branch- Iran AbstractWebsite

Purpose Faecal sludge (FS) and organic market waste (MW) have resources that could be recovered by co-composting though not fully explored under changing climatic conditions in Nigeria. This study explored the characteristics and nutrient quality of co-composts produced from pre-treated FS and MW feedstocks in Nigeria. Methods The study was exploratory and analytical in design and co-composting was purposively selected for resource-recovery. The raw faecal sludge (FS) was harvested from septic tanks of households (50%) and institutions (50%) through mechanical evacuation service trucks and dewatered using 0.1% gradient sand filter. The biodegradable MW was sorted and used for further studies. The dewatered FS (DFS) and MW were mixed in ratios 1:3, 1:5 and 1:7, respectively with DFS and MW as controls. Each of the mixes was made into 1m3 heap and co-composted using the windrow method. The experiments were monitored for 88 days with fortnight composite sampling from each mix (13-weeks). The samples were analyzed for temperature, pH, moisture-contents, micronutrients, macronutrients and pollutants using Standard Methods. Results At maturity, N:P:K (%) indicate good composts at 9: 5: 4, 18: 7: 19 and 3: 3: 1 in the 1: 3, 1: 5 and 1: 7 mixes, respectively, while those of controls were: 19:12:12 (DFS) and 17:14:11(MW) with no significant differences between experimental and control mixes. Also, four factors extracted (pollutants, agronomic, macronutrients and micronutrients), explained 78.2% variability. Conclusion The matured co-compost satisfied nutrients and pollutants quality for agricultural use, recovered organic fertiliser from raw domestic and institutional faecal sludge and market waste.

Okon, AJ, Aluko OO, Tom UE, Essien NE.  2020.  {Bioaccumulation of Heavy Metals in Liver of Albino Wistar Rats Exposed to Single and Heavy Metal Mixture}. African Journal of Environmental Health Sciences. 7:101–109. Abstract

Heavy metals such as cadmium, lead and arsenic pose health hazards to animals and humans globally. These tend to bio-accumulate in body tissues and organs and interfere with the functioning of vital cellular components. This study was conducted to evaluate the bioaccumulation of these metals in the liver of albino Wistar rats following a sub-chronic Department of Public Health, exposure to single and heavy metal mixture.Twenty mature male Albino University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria Wistar rats weighing 192 -200g were randomly assigned into five groups of four rats each. Groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 were treated for 12 weeks with 60mg/kg bodyweight of lead acetate, 22.5 mg/kg bodyweight of cadmium dichloride, 18.8mg/kg bodyweight of arsenic trioxide, and treated with a mixture of lead acetate (60mg/kg bodyweight) cadmium dichloride (22.5 mg/kg body weight) and arsenic trioxide (18.8 mg/kg bodyweight) while group 5 served as the control. Both treated groups of animals and the control group were fed with rat chow and water throughout the experimental period. At termination, there was significant accumulation of metals in the liver of animals in the intoxicated groups when compared with the control group. Lead accumulation in the liver was found to be (41.41+33.72 kg/mg) in lead only group. Cadmium (Cd) accumulation in the liver was found to be 40.16+21.41 kg/mg in the Cadmium alone group. Arsenic (As) accumulation in the liver was found Corresponding Author: to be 26.59 + 10.12 kg/mg. The co-metal exposure group had Arsenic (As) as above concentration of 51.89 + 11.12kg/mg which was significantly (P < 0.05) á higher than that of As alone group and even other metals in the co-metal exposure group. There was a decrease in liver weight especially in As-exposed groups and a greater decrease in the co-exposure group. Cadmium, Lead, Arsenic, Similarly, change in body weight was higher in the mixed heavy metal Bioaccumulation, group followed by the arsenic exposed group.The elevated levels of these Albino Wistar Rats. metals in the liver of experimental suggests potential toxic effects. A greater bioaccumulation of the metals in the co-exposure group suggests a synergistic interaction which implies increased toxicity. There is need to limit exposure to these heavy metals.

Obebe, OO, Aluko OO.  2020.  {Epidemiology of tungiasis in sub-saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis}. Pathogens and Global Health. 114:360–369., Number 7: Taylor & Francis AbstractWebsite

Tungiasis is a public health disease in many rural and urban slums in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), primarily affecting children and the elderly. Yet, this disease has received little attention in many sub-Saharan African countries. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the pooled prevalence of tungiasis and associated risk factors in SSA. We searched AJOL, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and PubMed for population-based studies that reported the prevalence of tungiasis and risk factors in SSA between January 1980 and July 2020. The study employed a random-effects model and heterogeneity to estimate the pooled prevalence and evaluate the Cochran's Q-test respectively across studies that met the inclusion criteria. We screened 104 articles and retrieved 42 full-text articles to evaluate for inclusion in the review. Twenty-seven studies involving 16,303 individuals in seven SSA countries were analyzed. The pooled prevalence of tungiasis in SSA was 33.4% (95% CI: 27.6–39.8), while tungiasis prevalence was 46.5%, 44.9%, 42.0%, 37.2%, 28.1%, 22.7% and 20.1% for Ethiopia, Cameroon, Tanzania, Kenya, Nigeria, Rwanda, and Uganda, respectively. The risk of tungiasis was associated with gender, participants' age groups (4–15 years and ≥60 years), earthen floor, non-regular use of footwear, contact with animals, and residence in rural areas. An integrated approach addressing significant factors in tungiasis prevalence in SSA needs to be designed and implemented by a trans-disciplinary composition of community leaders, health professionals, non-governmental institutions, and policymakers.

2019
Oloruntoba1, EO, Aluko OO, Adejumo M, Amubieya OE, Sridhar MKC.  2019.  {Strategies for achieving water security in Nigeria by 2050}. African Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences. 48:201–209. Abstract

Background: Water security denotes the capacity of the people to safeguard sustainable access to adequate quantities of acceptable quality water for sustaining livelihoods, human well-being, and socioeconomic development, for protection against waterborne pollution and water-related disasters, and for preserving ecosystems in a climate of peace and political stability. Nigeria has many rivers that cover about 10,812,400 hectares, and therefore water security should be assured all things being equal but burdened with an estimated 30% dysfunctional status of newly provided water supply infrastructure within the first year of provision. Situation analysis: As of 2018, access to basic water supply services reached 67.9% with 87.3% for people living in urban areas and 59.7% for those in rural areas, while about 69 million people lack access to improved drinking-water sources, with attendant high prevalence of water-borne diseases, threat to the livelihoods, and low levels of school enrolment, especially among girls. Forecast: Nigeria, with the fastest-growing population among the ten most populous countries in the world, is expected to have a population of 400 million by 2050. This rapid increase in population has been projected to stress the available water resources in the country if not adequately regulated and managed, thereby leading to an increase in water pollution, food shortage, and conflicts. Challenges: The poor state of water supply infrastructure, climate change, numerous breakdowns of water supply infrastructures, inadequate measures for cost recovery, Skewed political will at state and local government levels. Strategies to achieving water security: Revitalisation and strengthening of the water, sanitation and hygiene sector information management system, revision and activation of the national M&E framework with monitoring and evaluation indicators measurements, strengthening the operation and maintenance system to support realtime maintenance of water supply infrastructures. Conclusion: With the exponential rate at which water demand is increasing in Nigeria, this review considered the enactment of appropriate legislation, with enforcement arms, and the activation of the national M&E framework with monitoring and evaluation systems and indicators towards significant progress towards achieving household water security in Nigeria.

2018
Afolabi, OT, Aluko OO, Afolabi BK, Fehintola FO.  2018.  {Healthcare waste management practices and risk perception of healthcare workers in private healthcare facilities in an urban community in Nigeria}, sep. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 12:305–311., Number 9 AbstractWebsite

Medical waste, despite the relatively small amounts in which it is generated, is a major concern for healthcare professionals and the government mainly because it poses risks to humans and the environment. Previous studies have shown that there is poor management of medical waste in developing nations, and Nigeria is not an exception. Some have surveyed the associated risks but few have studied the risk perceptions among healthcare professionals, particularly in this environment. This study therefore aimed at assessing the waste management practices among healthcare professionals at privately owned health facilities in Ife Central LGA. The study was a cross sectional study that assessed 24 private health facilities in Ife Central Local Government Area of Osun state, Nigeria using self-administered questionnaires, observational checklist and weighing of wastes. Risk perception of respondents was graded on a scale of 1 – 10 as low risk (1-4), average risk (5-6) and high risk (7-10). The facilities assessed generated a median waste of 500 g/day. 62.5% of them separated the waste, while 25% colour coded; however, none correctly matched the colours with the appropriate category of waste. 79.2% stored their waste in dustbins, and 75% of them burned while 20.8% buried the waste as a means of disposal. 45.8% had sharps boxes, 29.2% disinfected sharps before disposal; disposal was mostly by burning (41.7%).Over 90% of respondents were aware of health risks associated with health care waste management, with HIV (71%) and HBV (67%) being the most reported. Over a third (38%) of the respondents considered themselves to be at average risk with regards to health care wastes. Generation of medical waste is low in Private health facilities. However, open burning remains the way of disposal for such wastes and the health care professionals do not consider themselves at high risk from these wastes.

Afolabi, OT, Aluko OO, Fehintola FO, Afolabi BK, Olaniran O.  2018.  {Are Creches a Haven for Child Care or Cesspool for Infection?}, jul Global Journal of Health Science. 10:143–152., Number 8 AbstractWebsite

The increasing number of Nigerian women in the labour force and disintegration of the extended family system, has led to demand for alternative means of caring for children. Crèche facilities serve as alternative sources of childcare. This study aimed at assessing the adequacy of crèches in a community in Nigeria to offer child care.The study employed a descriptive cross-sectional study design; a total of 14 out of 18 crèches in the town were assessed using a checklist (78% response rate), only 62% of parents of enrolled children accepted to be interviewed while all care givers were interviewed with a questionnaire. Swab samples for microbiological analysis were collected from floors, beddings and toys in the crèches and subjected to microbiological analysis.Less than two-fifth (38%) of caregivers had good knowledge about early childhood care. About two-thirds (65%) of the caregivers had some training in early childhood care. None of the creche had an infection control policy while a little over half (57%) had good environmental hygiene status, 93% had good safety practices and 71% had fair infection control practices. Organisms isolated are Staphylococcus aureus (59%), Aerobic spore bearer (13%) and Proteus vulgaris (5%) while 28% yielded no growth. Staphylococcus aureus was resistant to second line antibiotics and only 44% were sensitive to Gentamicin. Proteus vulgaris was resistant to most antibiotics but sensitive to Gentamicin.Knowledge of care givers about childcare practices was poor. Infection control practice was fair despite absence of infection control policy.

Aluko, OO, Oloruntoba EO, Chukwunenye UA, Henry EU, Ojogun E.  2018.  {The dynamics and determinants of household shared sanitation cleanliness in a heterogeneous urban settlement in Southwest Nigeria}, dec. Public Health. 165:125–135.: Elsevier AbstractWebsite

Objectives: The study assessed the behavioural contexts of household shared sanitation (SS), the factors that could enhance its cleanliness and sustainable maintenance in the study area. Study design: The study design was cross-sectional in nature. Methods: A pretested, interviewer-administered questionnaire with 113 questions provided information on knowledge, attitude and SS maintenance practices from 312 respondents selected through a four-stage sampling technique. Data were analysed by descriptive, chi-square and logistic regression statistics with attitude and toilet cleanliness as the dependent variables, while the sociodemographic characteristics, knowledge and practice, including the toilet cleanliness index, were the explanatory variables at P < 0.05. Results: The mean age of respondents was 46.1 ± 16.4 years. The majority were women (62.7%), tenants (64.7%) and had a secondary education (61.3%). In addition, 27.9% and 2.7% of respondents had shops and gender-segregated SS, respectively. Their knowledge and attitudes were good (66.3%) and positive (72.1%), while the majority (60.3%) of the SS was dirty. Almost two-thirds (62.8%) and 37.2% of respondents, respectively, had one and two or more compartments of unimproved pit toilets (31.6%) and water closets (28.6%), while 1.4% practiced open defaecation, despite having SS. More than two-fifths of SS were cleaned daily (45.4%) by women (52%), using water and soap (33.4%). Most households (93.4%) complied with the SS cleaning routines, with non-compliance attributed to lack of interest (29.5%), apathy when others defaulted (27.9%), lack of time (26.2%) and inadequate water (14.8%). There was a significant association between attitudes and education (P = 0.025), wealth (P = 0.011) and toilet-cleaning frequency (P = 0.015). The positive behaviour determinants of SS are factual knowledge (P = 0.039), efforts required to clean (P = 0.019), the ability to remember (P = 0.011) and cleaning commitment (P = 0.040), while freedom of expression among households using SS was a positive predictor of avoiding conflict, among the social dilemma factors. Conclusions: Good knowledge and positive attitudes were reported among users of SS, although with mixed practice and behaviour patterns. Factual knowledge, cleaning commitments and freedom of expressions predict SS cleanliness, which should be reinforced using periodic messages and structured health promotion strategies.

Ojo, OB, Esan OT, Olowookere SA, Aluko OO.  2018.  {Enabling and Demotivating factors associated with handwashing practices: A case study of undergraduate students in a Nigerian University}. African Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences. 47:21–28. Abstract
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Okareh, OT, Okiche CI, Aluko OO, Omotade OO.  2018.  {Sanitary conditions and inmates' knowledge and attitude towards hygiene practices in a maximum-security prison in Oyo State, Southwest Nigeria}. Nigerian Journal of Health Sciences. 18:15–28., Number 1 AbstractWebsite

Context: The study was conducted in a maximum‑security prison in southwest Nigeria, where inmates were held in lawful custody by a court of competent jurisdiction. The inmates are vulnerable, and their health is conditioned not only on their nutrition and health‑care services but also on available water and sanitation services, personal and collective hygiene behaviour, within the prison environment. Aim: The study assessed the living and sanitary conditions and hygiene practices of inmates in a maximum‑security prison in Nigeria. Settings and Design: The study was descriptive, cross‑sectional in design and elicited information on knowledge, attitude and hygiene practice of consented prison inmates. Methods: The questionnaire response was 94.8% and was identified through a multistage sampling technique and inmates were stratified by detention status with the minimum sample allocated by the proportional to size method. Systematic sampling was used for serial recruitment without replacement. The data collection tool was a validated, semi‑structured, interviewer‑administered questionnaire. Statistical Analysis Used: Knowledge and attitudes were measured on a 24‑ and 55‑point scales and rated as poor (≤11) and good (>11); negative (≤33) and positive (>33), respectively. Summary data were presented by descriptive, Chi‑square and logistic regression at P < 0.05. Results: Inmates mean age was 31.6 ± 8.2 years and mostly, males (98.3%) with 47.2% and 50.8% respectively married and completed secondary education. The main water source to inmates was hand‑dug wells, while all‑male conveniences were dirty. The major illnesses were malaria, ringworm and diarrhoea. In addition, sanitary knowledge was a significant predictor of attitude towards hygiene practices (OR: 0.52, 95% CI: 0.298‑0.905). Conclusions: The good knowledge and positive attitudes of inmates contrast poor sanitary conditions, perhaps due to poor sanitation and hygiene infrastructure and overcrowding conditions. Key

2017
Otuneye, AT, Ahmed PA, Abdulkarim AA, Aluko OO, Shatima DR.  2017.  {Relationship between dietary habits and nutritional status among adolescents in Abuja municipal area council of Nigeria}, sep. Nigerian Journal of Paediatrics. 44:128–135., Number 3 AbstractWebsite

{Background: Dietary intake assessment is essential to understanding the nutritional status. Healthy eating pattern promotes optimal health, growth and intellectual development and prevents diseases, while poor dietary eating choices may cause malnutrition. Aims: To determine the dietary eating patterns and nutritional status among adolescents in secondary schools within Abuja Municipal area council (AMAC). Subjects and Methods: crosssectional among adolescents, 10 – 19years in secondary schools within AMAC, Nigeria. Using a multistage stratified sampling technique, four urban and four rural schools, 1550 students, were enrolled. Subject's bio data, dietary habits and knowledge of nutrition and general physical examination were obtained. Dietary assessment included intake of main meals (breakfast, lunch and dinner), skipping meals; methods used to control weight in the previous 30days; knowledge and preference of a balanced diet and food choices. Subject's height and weight and Body Mass Index (BMI) were determined using the 2007 WHO charts. Data was analyzed using SPSS version 17 statistical package and p value less than 0.05 was significant. Results: 1550 students were recruited, males 688 (44.4%) and females 862 (55.6%); mean age 14.43±1.94 years. Of the 780 urban adolescents, 502 (64.4%) were of upper class and 68 (8.7%) lower class; and of the 770 (49.7%) rural, 206 (26.8%) and 232 (30.1%) belong to upper and lower class respectively

Aluko, OO, Afolabi OT, Olaoye EA, Adebayo AD, Oyetola SO, Abegunde OO.  2017.  {The management of the faeces passed by under five children: an exploratory, cross-sectional research in an urban community in Southwest Nigeria}, dec. BMC Public Health. 17:178., Number 1: BMC Public Health AbstractWebsite

BACKGROUND Safe management of faeces (SMoF) and environmental contamination by faecal pathogens have been extensively researched although the SMoF in under-five children has been perennially neglected perhaps due to the misconception that it is harmless. This research, therefore, studied the situation, to determine the magnitude and dimensions of the problem aimed at making policy level stakeholders aware of child faeces management systems and so, inform evidence-based implementation of child and health-related programmes in Nigeria. METHODS The study utilized an exploratory cross-sectional design and a multi-stage sampling technique to identify 300 respondents from 12 randomly selected streets from 4 wards in Ife central local government area. The study collected data with a pretested questionnaire which included direct observations of child defecation practices and existing toilet facilities. Cleaned data were analyzed by IBM-SPSS version 20 with child faeces management outcomes as the dependent variable. RESULTS The mean age of respondents' and monthly income (mode) were 30.8 ± 7.5 years and ₦10,000.00 ($28.60). Most respondents were mothers to the under five children (84.7%), had a secondary education (72.0%) and were semi-skilled (57.0%). The caregivers had access to improved water sources (93.7%), improved toilets (64.3%), with 64% and 53.7% having above average scores in knowledge and attitudes, respectively. In the study, 19.7% and 69.0% of caregivers practiced safe disposal of faeces passed by the under five child during the day and at night respectively, though most caregivers (94.3%) omitted steps in the safe management of child faeces chain. The under five diarrhoea prevalence rate was 13.7% and unsanitary passage of child faeces is associated with four folds likelihood of having diarrhoea (p = 0.001). The caregivers whose under five children practiced safe sanitation were rich (p = 0.009) and knowledge was significantly associated with ownership of household toilet (P = 0.037), night faeces management chain practice (P < 0.001) and disposal of anal cleaning materials (P = 0.002). Handwashing was significantly associated with household toilet (P < 0.001), wealth (P < 0.001), under five child defecation preferences during the day (P < 0.001) and at night (P = 0.008). CONCLUSION The high knowledge and positive attitudes exhibited by the caregivers were at variance with practice. Where under five children defecate during the day were influenced by the disposal of their anal cleaning materials, distance to the toilet and caregivers' education. The findings highlight the dangers of unsanitary disposal of child faeces and the need to strengthen the related policies that can increase caregivers awareness and practice at all levels and in all livelihood domains.

2016
Eremutha, F, {Taiwo B.} H, {K. C. Sridhar} M, {Olufemi. O.} A.  2016.  {Evaluation of Sanitary Conditions in Kuje Market in Abuja, Nigeria with Diverse Cultural Practices and Provision of a Dry Ecological Toilet System}, nov. Sociology and Anthropology. 4:1011–1019., Number 11 AbstractWebsite
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Aluko, OO, Adebayo AE, Adebisi TF, Ewegbemi MK, Abidoye AT, Popoola BF.  2016.  {Knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of occupational hazards and safety practices in Nigerian healthcare workers}, dec. BMC Research Notes. 9:71., Number 1: BioMed Central AbstractWebsite

BACKGROUND By profession, healthcare workers (HCWs) attend to clients and patients through a variety of preventive and curative services. However, while their attention is focused on providing care, they are vulnerable to hazards that could be detrimental to their health and well-being. This is especially true in developing countries where health service delivery is fraught with minimal protective precautions against exposures to numerous fomites and infectious agents. This study assessed the workplace hazards and safety practices by selected HCWs in a typical health care facility (HCF) in Nigeria. METHODS The study utilized a descriptive cross-sectional design and stratified sampling technique to identify 290 respondents. The study used mixed methodology and collected data by validated instruments with resulting data analyzed by IBM-SPSS, version 20. RESULTS The results showed that over half of the respondents were registered nurses, female, married (61.7 %) with 5 years median work experience (70.3 %). Most respondents (89 %) were knowledgeable about hazards in HCFs, identified recapping used needles as a risky practice (70 %) and recognized that effective hand washing prior to, and after every clinical procedure in preventing cross infection (100 %). Also, most respondents (96.2 %) believed they were at risk of occupational hazards while about two-thirds perceived the risk as high. In addition, only 64.2 and 87.2 % had completed Hepatitis B and Tetanus immunizations, respectively. Only 52.1 % "always" complied with standard procedures and most (93.8 %) practice safe disposal of sharps (93.8 %) while those that did not (40 %) generally implicated lack of basic safety equipment. In this study, the practice of hand washing by respondents was not influenced by occupation and education. CONCLUSIONS The high level of knowledge demonstrated by respondents was at variance with practice, therefore, measures aimed at promoting safety practices and, minimizing exposure to hazards such as; provision of safety equipment, pre-placement and routine training of staff on safety practices and adequate reinforcement of staff capacity and capability through drills in all HCFs should be institutionalized and made mandatory. The protocol of the safety training and drills should be responsive to evidence-based emerging and sectoral safety challenges.

Alabi, A, Ijadunola MY, Alabi O, Onayade A, Aluko O.  2016.  {Assessment of Childhood Nutritional Status : Findings from a Health and Demographic Surveillance System}. International Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 4:7–11., Number 1 Abstract

Background: Globally, malnutrition is a major public health concern. Malnutrition, mostly resulting from poor dietary choices is related to physiological, socioeconomic and psychological factors and remains one of the leading causes of under-five mortality (U5M) in developing countries. Interventions aimed at addressing the high prevalence of malnutrition in most developing countries is hampered by paucity of data on its prevalence and thus, most countries do not accord malnutrition especially among children under-five (under-5) years the required urgent attention. The study therefore assessed the nutritional status of under-five children in Zamfara State, northwest Nigeria. Methods: Households with children under-5 registered within the Nahuche Health and Demographic Surveillance System (Nahuche HDSS) were identified from the centre's database. Nutritional status of 397 children under-5 were assessed from three out of the six districts under the demographic surveillance area (DSA) using anthropometric indices. The anthropometric measurements (z-scores) were calculated for height-for-age (HAZ), weight-for-height (WHZ) and weight-for-age (WAZ) using the Emergency Nutrition Assessment (ENA) for SMART Software. The nutritional status of children under-5 in the DSA was compared with new growth standards published by World Health Organisation (WHO) in 2006. Results: Results show that malnutrition was prevalent, with 70% (n=397) of the under-5 stunted, 15% (n=292) wasted and 37% (n=397) underweight. About half of the stunted children, were severely stunted while almost a quarter (23.9%) of the underweight children, were severely underweight. Conclusion: The study provided evidence of high malnutrition among under-five children in the study area and thus, emphasized the need for multidimensional and multisectoral intervention aimed at addressing prevalence of high malnutrition. This can be achieved through strategic advocacy to policy level stakeholders, promotion of maternal and child health (MCH) services and integrated health promotion focusing on caregivers of children under-5.

Afolabi, OT, Awopeju OF, Aluko OO, Deji SA, Olaniyan BB, Agbakwuru LC, Oyedele OO, Oni KR, Ojo BO.  2016.  {Awareness of indoor air pollution and prevalence of respiratory symptoms in an urban community in South West Nigeria}. Nigerian Journal of Health Sciences. 16:33–38., Number 1 AbstractWebsite

Background: Air pollution is often perceived as an outdoor public health problem but the air in residential buildings, cars and offices can also be polluted. Indoor air pollution (IAP) is the presence of one or more contaminants in the indoor environment that has a degree of human health risk. IAP is a risk factor for respiratory tract infection and is associated with increased risk morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Objective: The present study determined the relationship between awareness of IAP and prevalence of respiratory symptoms. Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study. Respondents were selected using a multistage sampling technique. Data were collected using structured questionnaires with the aid of interviewers. Results: Two hundred and thirty-nine (95.6%) of 250 who were given questionnaires responded. One hundred and fifty (62.8%) of respondents were aware of IAP. The major source of their information was through the radio in 57 (23.8%). One hundred and four (43.5%) prepare food on the corridor with cooking with a kerosene stove, and 211 (88.3%) were using mosquito coil. Shortness of breath was reported by 49 (20.5%) while 25 (10.5%) expectorated phlegm. Respondents with exposure to tobacco smoke in the indoor environment had a 12-fold likelihood of having phlegm and an 8-fold likelihood of having shortness of breath. Conclusion: The level of awareness of IAP by the respondents was low in this study. Indoor smoking was a major determinant of respiratory symptoms. There is thus, a need for widespread health promotion to raise awareness about IAP and its effects.

Aluko, OO, Ogundipe A, Odunjo A, Komolafe J, Olatunji I.  2016.  {Knowledge and Food Handling Practices of Nurses in a Tertiary Health Care Hospital in Nigeria.}. Journal of environmental health. 78:32–38., Number 6 Abstract

Food safety in hospitals is important to protect patients whose immunity may be compromised by their illness. The safety of food served to patients is dependent on its handling acquisition of raw food items, to preparation, packaging, and distribution. The study described in this article assessed the knowledge and food handling practices of nurses in the food chain to patients in the hospital wards. The mean age of respondents was 33.7 +/- 9.3 years and 180 (56.6%) had worked in the hospital for 1-5 years. While respondents had good knowledge scores overall, only 22 (6.5%) knew the correct temperature for maintaining hot, ready-to-eat food. Also, 332 (97.6%) respondents knew the importance of hand washing before handling food while 279 (84.1%) always wash hands before handling food. The study revealed a decline in performance over time, from knowledge and attitudes to practice in food handling. Therefore, regular training on safe food handling procedures should be mainstreamed into the training curriculum of staff nurses in health care institutions.

2015
Esimai, OA, Aluko OO.  2015.  {Determinants of use of insecticide treated bednets among caregivers of under five children in an urban local government area of Osun state, South-Western Nigeria}, sep. Global journal of health science. 7:20–27., Number 2 AbstractWebsite

In Sub Sahara Africa, the use of Insecticide Treated Nets (ITNs) is one of many strategies of Roll Back Malaria (RBM) initiatives to reduce malaria burden. This study therefore assessed the current use of insecticide treated nets and the determinants of its use among the caregivers of under five children in an urban local government area in Osun state, Nigeria. The study utilised a cross-sectional design among caregivers of under- five children selected from households by multistage sampling technique. The study collected quantitative data using pretested semi structured, interviewer administered questionnaire while factors that determine the current use of ITN were identified using multi linear logistic regression. The study revealed that 54.4% caregivers of under five children were aware of ITNs as one of the malaria preventive measures, 49.1% had good knowledge of ITN and 38% agreed with the use of ITNs. Thirty four percent had access to ITNs, 32.3% owned at least one ITN with 30.3% reported been given free in the health care facilities. Thirty three percent had ever used and the foremost reasons for non-use are not readily available and expensive. Only 18.5% currently used ITNs and challenges faced were not easy to treat, difficult to set up and no place to keep it. Marital status, knowledge of ITN, attitude towards ITN, ownership of ITN and free ITN were factors that determined the use of ITNs amongst the respondents. There is a need to ensure intensive awareness on ITNs through campaigns and embark on its mass distribution to the public to enhance use.

Olusegun, AT, Olufemi AO, Olaniran O, Olusola A, Bolade OK, Oluwatoyosi O.  2015.  {Safety of bread for human consumption in an urban community in Southwestern Nigeria}, may. African Journal of Food Science. 9:272–277., Number 5 AbstractWebsite
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Afolabi, OT, Aluko OO, Ojumu BK.  2015.  {Determinants of tree-planting in a semi-urban community in south- western Nigeria}. Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences. 6:34–42., Number 4 Abstract

Without trees, human life would be unsustainable. Trees provide a wide range of products (timber, fruit, medicine, beverages, fodder and oils) and life-supporting services (carbon sequestration, erosion control, soil fertility, shade and beautification). However, our trees and forests are rapidly disappearing at an alarming rate with about 4 billion trees cut down annually and an inverse relationship to population growth. There is now an increasing need for renewal of our forest reserves, thereby necessitating sustenance through tree planting. This study set out to document the level of practice of tree planting in our community, the types of tree commonly planted ,purpose of planting such trees, and reason for not planting if any. This study employed a cross-sectional study design and was conducted at Ife central local government, Ile-Ife, Osun state. Respondents were selected with a multistage sampling technique and data collected with the use of interviewer administered questionnaires. Data were analysed at univariate and bivariate levels as appropriate. Land ownership was by 40% of respondents with 45% acquiring the land through family inheritance. Less than two-thirds (63%) had good knowledge of tree planting while only 45% had ever planted a tree. Trees that provide food or fruit were the most commonly planted (82%). Not owning a land was the major deterrent to planting a tree with marital status, occupation and land ownership significantly associated with tree planting (p<0.05). Provision of seedlings and review of land laws were ways the respondents felt Government could improve tree planting practice.

Afolabi, OT, Olaniran O, Olawande O, Aluko OO, Fawehinmi OL, Fehintola AO.  2015.  {Pathogen Carrying Capacity of Mobile Phones of Health Workers in a Teaching Hospital in Nigeria}. Journal of Community Medicine and Primary Health Care. 27:11–19., Number 1 Abstract

Mobile phones have become indispensable accessories of professional and social life. Microorganisms that cause hospital acquired infections can be transmitted by handheld devices of hospital personnel. Studies have shown that mobile phones could be a health hazard with tens of thousands of microbes living on each square inch of the phone. This study determined the prevalence of micro-organisms on the mobile phones of health workers and their role as a source of hospital acquired infection. The study utilised a cross-sectional design. A total of one hundred and eighty swabs were collected from the mobile phones of health workers and subjected to microbiology analysis. Microbes were cultured in 70% of cell phones, 5% of which had mixed growths. Staphylococcus aureus accounted for 28%, coagulase negative staphylococcus 31% and E. coli 3% of the cultured organisms. Over 90% of Gram positive organisms were sensitive to Gentamicin while 70% of gram negative organisms were sensitive to Gentamicin. Two-fifth of gram positive and one-tenth of gram negative organisms were sensitive to Co-trimoxazole while neither was sensitive to Ampicillin. Only 42% of our respondents disinfect their mobile phones. Health workers should be sensitized on the need to disinfect their mobile phones regularly.

Afolabi, OT, Olaniran O, Olawande O, Aluko OO, Fawehinmi OL, Fehintola AO.  2015.  {Pathogen Carrying Capacity of Mobile Phones of Health Workers in a Teaching Hospital in Nigeria}. Journal of Community Medicine and Primary Health Care. 27:11–19., Number 1 Abstract

Mobile phones have become indispensable accessories of professional and social life. Microorganisms that cause hospital acquired infections can be transmitted by handheld devices of hospital personnel. Studies have shown that mobile phones could be a health hazard with tens of thousands of microbes living on each square inch of the phone. This study determined the prevalence of micro-organisms on the mobile phones of health workers and their role as a source of hospital acquired infection. The study utilised a cross-sectional design. A total of one hundred and eighty swabs were collected from the mobile phones of health workers and subjected to microbiology analysis. Microbes were cultured in 70% of cell phones, 5% of which had mixed growths. Staphylococcus aureus accounted for 28%, coagulase negative staphylococcus 31% and E. coli 3% of the cultured organisms. Over 90% of Gram positive organisms were sensitive to Gentamicin while 70% of gram negative organisms were sensitive to Gentamicin. Two-fifth of gram positive and one-tenth of gram negative organisms were sensitive to Co-trimoxazole while neither was sensitive to Ampicillin. Only 42% of our respondents disinfect their mobile phones. Health workers should be sensitized on the need to disinfect their mobile phones regularly.