Export 43 results:
Sort by: Author Title Type [ Year  (Desc)]
Olaniran, O, Ajayi OO, Odetoyin BW, Afolayan DO, Awoyeni EA, Adekunle OT, Oyetoke OO.  Submitted.  Prevalence of Soil Transmitted Helminthes among School Children in Central Local Government Area Ile-Ife Osun State. Nigeria. Abstract
Olajokun Racheal, E, Babatunde OW, Farancisca AO, Ayobami AE.  Submitted.  The Prevalence of Urinary Catheter Related Infections in Federal Medical Centre Abeokuta Nigeria. Abstract

Background: Panton-Valentine Leucocidin (PVL)-producing Staphylococcus aureus strains have been implicated in serious community-associated invasive infections and their increasing multidrug resistance is a major global health concern. Thus, we investigated the prevalence of the PVL gene and the antimicrobial resistance profile of nasal S. aureus isolates from healthy adults in Tundu-Wada, Gombe State of Nigeria. Methods and Materials: A total of 262 nasal samples from healthy adults were obtained and cultured. The isolates were identified as S. aureus by standard morphological and biochemical methods alongside with the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) amplification of their 16S rRNA gene. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by the disc diffusion technique and the presence of mecA and PVL genes was determined by PCR analysis. Results: The overall nasal colonization of S. aureus was 17.6%. The prevalence of haemolysin and biofilm production among the isolates was 25(54.3%) and 42(91.3%), respectively. Only 2(4.3%) and 5(10.9%) possessed mecA and PVL genes respectively but none of the isolates harboured these two genes. All the isolates were resistant to amoxicillin but were highly susceptible (93.7%) to gentamicin. The prevalence of multi-drug resistance (MDR) among the isolates was M 45.7% and all PVL-producing isolates were MDR while one of the isolates with mecA gene exhibited extensive-drug resistance (XDR). Conclusion: This is the first report of nasal colonization of MDR PVL-producing S. aureus in healthy adults in Gombe, Northeastern Nigeria. This study highlights the importance of routine surveillance of healthy populations to provide useful strategies for controlling the spread of virulent multidrug-resistant organisms within the community.

Onanuga, A, Eboh D, Odetoyin B, Adamu O.  2020.  Detection of {{ESBLs}} and {{NDM}}-1 Genes among Urinary {{Escherichia}} Coli and {{Klebsiella}} Pneumoniae from Healthy Students in {{Niger Delta University}}, {{Amassoma}}, {{Bayelsa State}}, {{Nigeria}}, jun. Pan African Medical Journal. 2 Abstract

Abstract Introduction: increasing emergence of multidrug-resistant uropathogens among healthy individuals is a serious public health problem capable of causing difficult-to-treat urinary tract infections (UTIs) with limited treatment options. This study therefore, determined the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) and molecular characteristics of antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from healthy students of Niger Delta University, Amassoma, Nigeria. Methods: mid-stream urine samples were collected from 303 healthy students and cultured for significant bacteriuria. Escherichia coli and K. pneumoniae were isolated and identified by conventional methods and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of the isolates were determined by the disc diffusion technique. The isolates were screened for Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamases (ESBLs) production by combined disc method, ESBLs and carbapenemases genes by PCR. Results: the prevalence of ASB was 21.1%, with a significantly higher proportion among the females (P {$<$} 0.0001). Escherichia coli and K. pneumoniae isolates were recovered in equal proportion (n=21; 6.9%), with E. coli significantly isolated from the females (P= 0.002). The isolates exhibited 57-95% resistance to cefotaxime, ceftazidime, and co-trimoxazole, and 10-24% resistance to levofloxacin and imipenem. Multidrug resistance (MDR) was found in 9 (42.9%) E. coli and 18 (85.7%) K. pneumoniae isolates; 60% of E. coli and 72.7% of K. pneumoniae were ESBLs producers. blaTEM (50%) and blaCTX-M (30%) were detected in E. coli while blaSHV (83.3%) and blaTEM (55.6%) were detected in K. pneumoniae. One E. coli and two K. pneumoniae isolates harboured NDM-1 gene. Conclusion: the ASB from this study\textasciiacute s healthy individuals was characterized by MDR bacteria that harboured ESBLs and NDM-1 genes. Thus, emphasizing the need for regular surveillance of bacterial resistance and proper hand hygiene to contain the spread of MDR pathogens in the community.

Odetoyin, B, Adeola B, Olaniran O.  2020.  Frequency and {{Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns}} of {{Bacterial Species Isolated}} from the {{Body Surface}} of the {{Housefly}} ({{Musca}} Domestica) in {{Akure}}, {{Ondo State}}, {{Nigeria}}. Iranian Journal of Arthropod-Borne Diseases. 14:88–96.: {Tehran University of Medical Sciences} Abstract

Background: The emergence and spread of antibiotic resistant bacteria has become a serious problem worldwide. Houseflies are potential carriers of pathogenic and resistant bacteria and could be contributing to the global spread of these strains in the environments.We investigated the prevalence and antimicrobial resistant profiles of bacteria isolated from houseflies in Akure. Methods: Twenty-five houseflies were captured by a sterile nylon net from the slaughterhouse, garbage dump, human house, hospital, and eatery from 9:00am to 1:00pm when the flies were active and transported immediately to the labor\dbend atory in sterile containers for processing. Bacterial loads were enumerated by serial dilution and plating on nutrient agar and selective media. Bacteria species were isolated by conventional isolation technique. Antibiotic susceptibility test was determined by the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique. Results: Sixty-seven bacterial species were isolated from 25 samples that were collected. The predominant bacterial species was Escherichia coli (n= 31, 45%), followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (n= 17, 25%), Staphylococcus aureus (n=11, 16%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n= 3, 4.3%). The bacterial load of the samples ranged from 9.7× 105CFU/mL to 1.65× 106CFU/mL. The results revealed that all isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella spp, and Proteus mi\dbend rabilis were resistant to streptomycin and cotrimoxazole, augmentin and amoxicillin respectively. None of the S. aureus iso\dbend lates was resistant to cotrimoxazole, chloramphenicol, sparfloxacin, augmentin, and ofloxacin. All isolates were multi-drug resistant. Conclusion: House flies that were collected from the slaughterhouse, garbage dump, human house, hospital, and eatery may participate in the dispersal of pathogenic and resistant bacteria in the study environment

Bebe, T, Odetoyin B, Bolarinwa R.  2020.  Occurrence of {{Multidrug}}-Resistant {{Uropathogens Implicated}} in {{Asymptomatic Bacteriuria}} in {{Adults}} with {{Sickle Cell Disease}} in {{Ile}}-{{Ife}}, {{Southwest Nigeria}}. Oman medical journal. 35:e109., Number 2: {Oman Medical Specialty Board} Abstract

Objectives We sought to determine the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) in patients with sickle cell disease (SCD), the susceptibility profile of its agents and their extended-spectrum {$\beta$}-lactamase (ESBL) production. Methods Fifty-nine patients with SCD and 116 healthy controls were investigated. Urine samples were collected and cultured by standard techniques. We used the disc diffusion technique to determine antibiotic susceptibility. ESBL was detected by the combination disc method and detection of blaSHV, blaTEM, and blaCTX-M genes by multiplex-polymerase chain reaction. Results The prevalence of ASB was higher among patients with SCD (8.6%) than controls (0.9%) (p = 0.016), predominantly among females. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (n = 2; 33.3%) predominated among the isolates. Other uropathogens included Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Enterobacter cloacae. All isolates were sensitive to meropenem but were resistant to ceftazidime, ampicillin, and tetracycline. blaSHV, blaTEM, and blaCTX-M-15 were detected in Enterobacter cloacae. Conclusions The prevalence of ASB is high in patients with SCD predominantly among females. Rare multidrug-resistant uropathogens were implicated. We posit a need for resistance surveillance programs and antibiotic stewardship to prevent treatment failure and reduce drug resistance.

Adeyemo, A, Adeyemo A, Odetoyin B, Onipede A.  2020.  Prevalence and {{Molecular Characteristics}} of {{Extended}}-{{Spectrum Beta}}- {{Lactamase}}-{{Producing Gram}}-{{Negative Pathogens}} from {{Patients}} in a {{Tertiary Care Hospital}} in {{Nigeria}}. Journal of Medical Sciences and Clinical Research. 8:1–10., Number 5 Abstract

This study determined the prevalence of extended spectrum {$\beta$}-lactamase (ESBL) producing Gram negative bacilli (GNB) and its genetic variants in clinical infections in our setting. A total of 359 non-duplicate GNB were recovered from various clinical samples which were aseptically collected and processed following standard microbiological methods. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was carried out by standard disk diffusion method. ESBLs producers were confirmed by combination disk test and their genetic variants determined by polymerase chain reaction-based protocols. Among 359 GNB, 94 (26.2%) produced ESBL which were mainly distributed across genera as Citrobacter (n=27; 28.7%), Escherichia (n=25; 26.6%), Klebsiella (n=14; 14.9%) Enterobacter (n=12; 12.8%) and Proteus (n=5; 5.3%). Urine was the main source of ESBL producers (n-35; 37.2%) but ESBL production was most prevalent among isolates from sputum (35.7%). Among bacterial species, Klebsiella pneuminiae had the highest prevalence of ESBL-producing phenotypes (44.8%), followed by Enterobacter cloacae (38.5%), Citrobacter freundii (37.7%), Enterobacter aerogenes (36.8%) and Escherichia coli (29.8%). Seventeen bacteria (19.8%) had single ESBL genes while 69 (80.2%) had multiple genes of which 24 harboured bla TEM , bla SHV and bla CTX-M , 40 harboured bla CTX-M and bla TEM , three haboured bla CTX-M and bla SHV and two haboured bla TEM and bla SHV. Among the ESBL-producing strains, bla CTX-M was the most common harboured gene (74; 78.7%), closely followed by bla TEM (72; 76.6%). This study reveals a high prevalence of ESBL-producing bacteria which could complicate antibiotic treatment of clinical infections. There is a need for continuous antibiotic resistance surveillance to inform improved antibiotic stewardship and infection prevention and control.

Monárrez, R, Braun M, {Coburn-Flynn} O, Botelho J, Odetoyin BW, {Otero-Vera} JI, Quartey NKE, Peixe L, Aboderin AO, Okeke IN.  2019.  A Large Self-Transmissible Resistance Plasmid from {{Nigeria}} Contains Genes That Ameliorate a Carrying Cost, dec. Sci Rep. 9:19624., Number 1: {Nature Publishing Group} Abstract
Olaniran, O, Adetuyi FC, Omoya FO, Odediran SA, {Hassan-olajokun} RE, Awoyeni EA, Odetoyin BW, Adesina A, Awe A, Bejide RA, O O, Akinyemi LO, Oyetoke OO, Afolayan DO.  2019.  Antiplasmodial, {{Antipyretic}}, {{Haematological}} and {{Histological Effects}} of the {{Leaf Extracts}} of {{Moringa}} Oleifera in {{Plasmodium}} Berghei Berghei {{Infected Mice}}, apr. JAMMR. :1–13. Abstract

The aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Moringa oleifera leaf were evaluated for safety, antimalarial and antipyretic activities because it is commonly used for various types of ailments especially malaria and fever. The various concentration of these extracts (0-800mg/kg) were tested against Plasmodium berghei berghei infected albino mice of either sex, in a Peters' four day antiplasmodial test while antipyretic activities were evaluated in malaria- induced mice. Their possible effects on haematological parameters of PCV, WBC, neutrophil, lymphocytes count and liver enzymes were also determined as well as on the liver and kidney architecture. All the tested doses of the aqueous extract were comparable in antiplasmodial activity (p{$>$}0.05) to each of the tested doses of the ethanolic extract which were significantly different (p{$<$}0.05) from the negative control. Only the highest doses of both extracts gave significantly higher (p{$<$}0.05) antiplasmodial activity than the standard drug. For the ethanolic extract, a significant antipyretic activity was not observed until at 800mg/kg in time T3 while the aqueous extract exerted no significant antipyretic activity at all doses and at all times. The ethanolic extract gave significantly higher PCV values than that of the aqueous. The administration of the aqueous extract gave significantly lower WBC than the ethanolic extract while comparable increase in lymphocyte count was noticeable at each of the doses of both extracts when compared to the negative control. Only 100mg/kg and 800mg/kg of the aqueous extract maintained a relatively high neutrophils count in this study. Also, the aqueous extract elicited higher concentration of ALT (greater than fourfold of normal) but the ethanolic extract produced the highest level of AST at the highest dose of 800mg/kg when compared to the ethanolic extract. Histological examination of the kidney showed progressive degeneration while that of the liver showed recovery when compared to negative control as a result of progressive increase in dosage of the extracts in malarial treatment.

Alaje, A, F. A, Ajose O, Odetoyin B.  2019.  Renal Function Assessment of Obese Non Diabetic and Obese Diabetic Patients Using Serum {{Cystatin C}}. 18:131–141., Number 2: {Medical and Dental Consultants Association of Nigeria (MDCAN) UBTH/UNIBEN Branch} Abstract

{Background: There is an annual 8% increase in the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD). This is probably due to the lack of consistent surrogate markers of kidney function to identify early stages of the disease. AIM: This study is aimed at evaluating renal status of patients with obesity (with or without diabetes) using both Creatinine and Serum Cystatin C. Materials and Methods: Seventy-six (76) consenting normotensive adults were recruited in a cross-sectional study carried out in a tertiary hospital. The study included 46 subjects (21 obese diabetic and 25 obese non-diabetic) and 30 non-obese euglycaemic controls. Analytical methods of kinetic Jaffe and immunoturbidimetry were used to assaycreatinine and cystatin C respectively. Estimated glomerular filtration rates (eGFR) was calculated for creatinine and cystatin C using CKD-EPI formula. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS Version 22. Level of significance was established at p{$<$}0.05. Results: The obese subjects and the controls were age (52.2{$\pm$}9.4years vs 52.7{$\pm$}7.8years

Osevwe, J, Olaniran O, Odetoyin B, Nwobu G, Agunlejika R, Omoya F, Awoyeni A, Oyetoke O.  2018.  Profile and {{Antimicrobial Resistance Patterns}} of {{Bacteria}} Isolated from {{Patients}} with {{Respiratory Tract Infections}} in {{Ile}}-{{Ife Metropolis}}, jan. Asian Journal of Medicine and Health. 9:1–9., Number 4: {Science Domain International} Abstract

Introduction: Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are public health concerns in developing countries. These infections are usually treated with antibiotics, and in most cases, treatment is initiated before the final laboratory reports are available. Lately, empiric treatment has been complicated by the emergence of resistance and a definitive diagnosis and susceptibility testing would be required for effective management. This study focused on the causative agents of RTIs in Ile-Ife, and the susceptibility patterns of all the isolates.

Odetoyin, BW, Olaniran O, Afolayan DO, Aderibigbe IA, Alaka O, Onanuga AA.  2018.  Asymptomatic Bacteriuria in an Apparently Healthy Population and Its Relation to Hypertension, aug. African Journal of Clinical and Experimental Microbiology. 19:282., Number 4: {AJCEM Life line Publishers} Abstract

Background Hypertension is a major health problem in sub-Sahara Africa. Several studies have suggested a role of asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB) in the aetiology of hypertension, but there is a dearth of information on this association in Africa where the burden of hypertension is high. We investigated the prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria, its association with hypertension and determined the antibiotic resistance patterns of implicated bacterial isolates in an urban community of Ile-Ife. Methods One hundred and seventy-four apparently healthy individuals were investigated for ASB. Relevant information was obtained from them with standard proforma. Their Blood pressure was measured with a standard mercury sphygmomanometer. All samples were processed on cysteine lactose electrolyte deficient medium and chocolate agar. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was done using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion technique. Results Fifty (28.7%) individuals were positive for ASB. ASB was commonly detected among the female subjects ({$\chi$}2=5.619; p-value = 0.01777), and among individuals in the age group of 50-59 years. Those that were hypertensive were two and a half times more likely to have ASB (Odd ratio=2.5; p-value=0.01369; CI=1.19-5.35). The highest percentage of hypertensive female participants with ASB was found in the age group of 30-39 years (33.3%) while among the male participants, the highest percentage was found in the age group of 60-69 years (9.5%). Escherichia coli (n=13; 26%) and Staphylococcus aureus (n=13; 26%) were the commonest organisms implicated in ASB. The majority of the isolates ({$>$}90%) were multidrug resistant. Isolates of Escherichia coli were commonly resistant to ampicillin (83.3%), ceftriaxone (72.7%) and cefepime (66.7%). Isolates of Staphylococcus aureus were all (100%) resistant to erythromycin, cloxacillin and streptomycin. All isolates were least resistant to cotrimoxazole ({$<$}8%). Conclusion Women as well as men in the age group of 50-59 years were more likely to develop ASB. ASB could be contributing to the rising incidence of hypertension in this environment. Co-occurrence of hypertension and ASB portends a grave problem for apparently healthy individuals in this environment.

Olopade, BO, Ogunniyi TA, Oyekunle AA, Odetoyin BW, Adegoke AO.  2017.  Cryptosporidiosis: {{Prevalence}}, Risk Factors and Diagnosis in Adult {{HIV}}-Infected Patients at {{Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex}} ({{OAUTHC}}), {{Ile}}-{{Ife}}, {{Osun State}}, {{Nigeria}}, mar. International Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Research. 6:18–29., Number 1 Abstract

{Background: Cryptosporidiosis is a parasitic disease which has assumed importance because of its increased incidence in immunocompromised states. Aim: The study determined the prevalence of cryptosporidiosis in adult HIV-infected patients and assessed risk factors predisposing to the development of cryptosporidial infection in these patients. The study also compared microscopy and the use of cryptosporidial antigen detection kit in the diagnosis of cryptosporidiosis. Methods: This cross-sectional study involved two hundred and twenty six patients that attended the virology research clinic, Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Ile-Ife. Questionnaires were administered to obtain relevant demographic information. Stool samples were collected into universal bottles and processed using the Modified Ziehl-Neelson staining procedure and Cryptosporidium antigen detection kit (Cryptostrip kit). Data entry and processing were done using the computer software SPSS version 17 and analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: The results showed that of the 226 patients that participated in the study, ten (4.4%) had cryptosporidiosis. Cryptosporidiosis was significantly associated with exposure to dogs ({$\chi$}2 = 6.904

Odetoyin, BW, Labar AS, Lamikanra A, Aboderin AO, Okeke IN.  2017.  Classes 1 and 2 Integrons in Faecal {{Escherichia}} Coli Strains Isolated from Mother-Child Pairs in {{Nigeria}}, aug. PLOS ONE. 12(Nübel, Ulrich, Ed.).:e0183383., Number 8: {Public Library of Science} Abstract

Background Antimicrobial resistance among enteric bacteria in Africa is increasingly mediated by integrons on horizontally acquired genetic elements. There have been recent reports of such elements in invasive pathogens across Africa, but very little is known about the faecal reservoir of integron-borne genes. Methods and findings We screened 1098 faecal Escherichia coli isolates from 134 mother-child pairs for integron cassettes by PCR using primers that anneal to the 5' and 3' conserved ends of the cassette regions and for plasmid replicons. Genetic relatedness of isolates was determined by flagellin and multi-locus sequence typing. Integron cassettes were amplified in 410 (37.5%) isolates and were significantly associated with resistance to trimethoprim and multiple resistance. Ten cassette combinations were found in class 1 and two in class 2 integrons. The most common class 1 cassette configurations were single aadA1 (23.4%), dfrA7 (18.3%) and dfrA5 (14.4%). Class 2 cassette configurations were all either dfrA1-satIaadA1 (n = 31, 7.6%) or dfrA1-satI (n = 13, 3.2%). A dfr cassette was detected in 294 (31.1%) of trimethoprim resistant strains and an aadA cassette in 242 (23%) of streptomycin resistant strains. Strains bearing integrons carried a wide range of plasmid replicons of which FIB/Y (n = 169; 41.2%) was the most frequently detected. Nine isolates from five different individuals carried the dfrA17-aadA5-bearing ST69 clonal group A (CGA). The same integron cassette combination was identified from multiple distinct isolates within the same host and between four mother-child pairs. Conclusions Integrons are important determinants of resistance in faecal E. coli. Plasmids in integroncontaining strains may contribute to dispersing resistance genes. There is a need for

Odetoyin, BW, Labar AS, Lamikanra A, Aboderin AO, Okeke IN.  2017.  Classes 1 and 2 integrons in faecal Escherichia coli strains isolated from mother-child pairs in Nigeria. PloS one. 12:e0183383., Number 8: Public Library of Science Abstract
Awoyeni, A, Olaniran O, Odetoyin B, Hassan-Olajokun R, Olopade B, Afolayan D, Adekunle O.  2017.  Isolation and evaluation of Candida species and their association with CD4+ T cells counts in HIV patients with diarrhoea. African health sciences. 17:322–329., Number 2: Makerere University Medical School (Uganda) Abstract
Awoyeni, A, Olaniran O, Odetoyin B, {Hassan-Olajokun} R, Olopade B, Afolayan D, Adekunle O.  2017.  Isolation and Evaluation of {{Candida}} Species and Their Association with {{CD4}}+ {{T}} Cells Counts in {{HIV}} Patients with Diarrhoea. African Health Sciences. 17:322., Number 2: {Makerere University Medical School (Uganda)} Abstract

Background: Gastrointestinal infection is one of the most common infections among HIV patients. Candida spp have been implicated in the aetiology of chronic diarrhoea in HIV patients, but little is known about this in Nigeria. Objectives: We determined the prevalence of faecal candidiasis in HIV patients in relation to diarrhoea, CD4 counts, and other socio-demographic factors and the spectrum of Candida isolates involved. Methods: One hundred and fifty four HIV patients were investigated. Candida species were identified by standard techniques. Socio-demographic and clinical information was obtained from the patients using a structured questionnaire. The CD4 count was estimated using a single platform flow cytometer. Results: Candida overgrowth was detected in 61 (39.5%) HIV patients, and diarrhoea was associated with candidiasis in the subjects (P=0.001). Candidiasis was commonly detected among subjects in the 29-39 years' age group. A CD4 count below 200 cells/mm2 (62.3%) was a risk factor for acquiring candidiasis among HIV patients (P=0.001). Candida albicans (65.6%) was the most frequently recovered species followed by Candida krusei (16.4%) and Candida tropicalis (14.8%). Conclusion: Candidiasis is an important opportunistic infection in HIV-patients in Ile-Ife. There is need for regular checks for opportunistic infections, including candidiasis in HIV patients to monitor disease progression and prevent subsequent complications.

Udoh, SJ, Olaniran O, Udo UA, Omoya FO, Osevwe AJ, Oyetoke OO, Odetoyin BW, Awoyeni EA, Adesina A.  2017.  The profiles of packed cells volume, plasma electrolytes and glucose levels in malarial infected patients. Microbiology Research. 8, Number 1 Abstract
Udoh, SJ, Olaniran O, Udo UA, Omoya FO, Osevwe AJ, Oyetoke OO, Odetoyin BW, Awoyeni EA, Adesina A.  2017.  The Profiles of Packed Cells Volume, Plasma Electrolytes and Glucose Levels in Malarial Infected Patients. Microbiology Research. 8, Number 1: {Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute} Abstract
Olaniran, O, Odetoyin B.  2016.  The {{Prevalence}} of {{Urinary Catheter Related Infections}} in {{Federal Medical Centre Abeokuta Nigeria}}, jul. Journal of Medical Science And clinical Research. Abstract

Catheter associate d urinary tract infection is an infection caused by the use of a catheter that drain urine from the body; the presence of a catheter within the urinary tract increase the likely hood of urinary tract infection and also increase the difficulty of treating the infection. This work was designed to study the prevalence of urinary catheter related infections in Abeokuta (Nigeria) between January 2010 and July 2010. Two hundred patient's samples were collected from female and male medical wards, Amenity, Obstetrics and Gynecology, children ward and emergency; the samples were cultured and isolate organisms were characterized and subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility study. Out of 200 samples examined, 82 (41.10%) yielded growth of bacteria while 118 (59.00%) were negative. The urine of the 82 positive cases yielded: Escherichia coli 29 (35.40%), Klebsiella pneumoniae 17 (20.9%) Pseudomonas aeruginosa 10 (15.5%), Staphylococcus aureus 13 (12.1%), Proteus mirabilis (9.75%) and Candida albicans 5 (6.0%). The age group that was most affected was between 26 and 35 years (32.0%), while age group 56-65 (7.31%) and 76-85 (7.31%) had least. The antibiotic susceptibility testing revealed high sensitivity of E. coli to Amoxicillin clavulanate (41.4%), K. pneumonia (52.90%), P. mirabilis (30.00%), P. aeruginosa (21.42%) to Ofloxacin, and S. aureus both ofloxacin and gentamycin (30.76%).

Olaniran, O, F.C. A, Omoya FO, Odediran S, R.E. H-olajokun, A. A, Odetoyin B, I.O. A, Oyetoke O, and D.O..  2016.  Antibacterial, {{Haematological Parameters}} and {{Phytochemical Analysis}} of the {{Leaf Extracts}} of {{Moringa Oleifera}}, dec. International Journal of clinical pathology. 3:3–5. Abstract

Antimicrobial resistance has become a global problem and Strategies to improve the current situation necessitate finding new and innovative antimicrobial agents. Forty apparently healthy albino mice of either sex, weighing between 19kg and 27kg, aged 2 to 3 weeks were purchased and the various concentration of the extracts from Moringa oleifera leaves were given orally to the mice, the highest mean PCV was recorded in 800mg (33.0{$\pm$}1.22), White blood cell count 400mg (3,725{$\pm$}923.20), Neutrophil count100mg (24.8{$\pm$}7{$\pm$}.65) and lymphocytes count 400mg (87.5{$\pm$}1.85), ethanol extracts had PCV to be highest in 200mg, White Blood Cell WBC 100mg (14,000{$\pm$}9453.4), neutrophils count 400mg(12.8{$\pm$}2.02) and lymphocytes count 800mg (91.5{$\pm$}2.22), the antimicrobial activity of the extracts on clinical isolates showed that the water extract 800mg/ml had the highest zone of inhibition of 6mm on the Escherichia coli, 19mm against Staphylococcus aureus, 18mm against Proteus mirabilis and 14mm against Escherichia coli, the ethanol extracts 800mg/ml had the highest zone of inhibition of 8mm against Salmonella typhii. 6mm against E.coli and S.aureus and 5mm against P. mirabilis, The phytochemical screening showed that both water and ethanol extracts had Flavonoid, Tannin, Glycoside, Terpenoid and Saponin with the absence of alkaloids in water, while reducing sugar was absent in both with Terpenoid having the highest concentrations in ethanol extracts 12.95mg/g and water extracts10.30mg/g.

Olaniran O, Adetuyi FC, OFOOSAH-OREAEAOWBALOOO.  2016.  Antibacterial, Haematological Parameters and Phytochemical Analysis of the Leaf Extracts of Moringa Oleifera. International Clinical Pathology Journal. 3:1–5., Number 3: MedCrave Abstract
Olaniran O, Adetuyi FC, OSAH-OREAEAOWBALOOOFOO.  2016.  Antibacterial, Haematological Parameters and Phytochemical Analysis of the Leaf Extracts of Moringa Oleifera. International Clinical Pathology Journal. 3:1–5., Number 3: {MedCrave} Abstract
Odetoyin, BW, Hofmann J, Aboderin AO, Okeke IN.  2015.  Diarrhoeagenic {{Escherichia}} Coli in Mother-Child {{Pairs}} in {{Ile}}-{{Ife}}, {{South Western Nigeria}}, dec. BMC Infectious Diseases. 16, Number 1: {BioMed Central} Abstract

Background: Diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) pathotypes are among the most common bacterial causes of morbidity and mortality in young children. These pathogens are not sought routinely and capacity for their detection is limited in Africa. We investigated the distribution and dissemination of DEC in 126 children paired with their mothers in a Nigerian community. Methods: A total of 861 E. coli were isolated from 126 children with diarrhoea and their mothers. Antimicrobial susceptibility of each isolate was determined by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion technique. All the isolates were screened for DEC markers by multiplex PCR. Genetic relatedness of DEC strains was determined by flagellin typing and Insertion element 3 (IS3)-based PCR. Results: DEC were identified from 35.7 % of individuals with the most common pathotype being shiga toxin-producing E. coli (42, 16.7 %). Identical pathotypes were found in 13 (10.3 %) of the mother-child pairs and in three of these strains from mothers and their children showed identical genetic signatures. Over 90 % of DEC isolates were resistant to ampicillin, sulphonamide, tetracycline, streptomycin or trimethoprim, but only 9 (7.2 %) were ciprofloxacin resistant Conclusion: The data suggest that healthy mothers are asymptomatic reservoirs of multiply-resistant strains that are pathogenic in their children and there are instances in which identical strains are found in mother-child pairs.