Publications

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2021
Fọlárànmí, Stephen. "{Lasekan: The Western Region Years}." In Akinola Lasekan: Cartooninig, Art and Nationalism at the Dawn of a New Nigeria, edited by Dele Jegede and Aderonke Adesanya, 171-181. Ibadan, Nigeria: Bookcraft, 2021. Abstract

Akinọlá Lasekan (1916-1972) is regarded as one of the pioneers of Nigerian modernism, and an art educator. His artistic career have been discussed alongside other artists such as Aina Onabolu, Akeredolu, Ben Enwowu and others. Particularly his practice as Nigeria's first political cartoonist with the West African Pilot—a newspaper established by Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe and a principal weapon in the fight for African emancipation. His artistic contributions as a teacher at University of Nigeria (UNN) from 1961-1966, and University of Ife (Unife) from 1967-1972 has however received little mention. Four paintings in the collection of the Obafemi Awólọ́wọ̀ University Ile-Ife created during this period has also received little or no mention, which leaves a gap in art historical discourse and the relevance of these paintings to the history of the university and the old western region of Nigeria. This chapter therefore propose an analysis of these four paintings and the historical trajectory they present as visual elements. It will to focus on Akinọlás Lasekans sojourn as a university teacher at the University of Ife, and his role as a foundation member of the Ife Art School.

Folaranmi, Stephen Adeyemi, and Emmanuel Oyewole Oyeniyi. "{Reinventing Oral Tradition through Arts and Technology}." In The Palgrave Handbook of African Oral Traditions and Folklore, edited by Akintunde Akinyemi and Toyin Falola, 865-887. Switzerland AG: Palgrave Macmillan, 2021. Abstract
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2020
Jimoh, Kudirat Oyewumi, Àjàdí Ọdẹ́ Ọdẹ́túnjí, Stephen Adeyemi Folaranmi, and Segun Aina. "{Handmade Embroidery Pattern Recognition: A New Validated Database}." Malaysian Journal of Computing 5 (2020): 390-042. AbstractWebsite

Patterns of handmade embroidery are an important part of the culture of a number of African people, particularly in Nigeria. The need to digitally document these patterns emerges in the context of its low patronage despite its quality and richness. The development of a database will assist in resuscitating the dying art of Handmade Embroidery Patterns (HEP). The patterns of handmade embroidery are also irregular and inconsistent due to the manual method, and creativity involved in its production. Developing an automatic recognition of HEP will therefore create a system where machine embroidery can be made, or automated to mimic the creativity and peculiar intricacies of traditional handmade embroidery patterns. This study developed handmade embroidery pattern database (HEPD) that can be used for many processes in the field of pattern recognition and computer vision applications. Samples of handmade embroidery patterns were collected from three different cities in South-Western, Nigeria. Pre-processing operations such as image enhancement, image noise reduction, and morphology were performed on the collected samples using image-processing toolbox in MATLAB. This work developed a validated new dataset of handmade embroidery patterns containing two categories of embroidery patterns with a total number of 315 images in the database. It evaluated the database for recognition process using cellular automata as feature extraction technique and support vector machine as its classifier. The performance metrics employed are sensitivity, specificity and accuracy. For the two classes of images considered, 72{%} sensitivity, specificity of 93{%} and accuracy of 80{%} were obtained for grayscale image. For the binary image, an accuracy of 72{%} with sensitivity of 82{%} and 65{%} specificity were obtained. The result obtained showed that the grayscale image exhibits an efficient accuracy than binary image.

Baasch, Rachel, Stephen Folárànmí, Emi Koide, Angelo Kakande, and Ruth Simbao. "{Knowing With” New Rhodes Board Navigates Collaboration}." African Arts 53 (2020): 1-5. Abstract
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2019
Jimoh, Kudirat Oyewumi, Stephen A. Fọlárànmí, and Ọdétúnjí Àjàdí Ọdéjọbí. "{Automatic Detection of Edges in Handmade Embroidery Patterns}." Journal of Advances in Mathematics and Computer Science 30 (2019): 1-18. Abstract
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Folaranmi, Stephen Adeyemi, and Tolulope E. Ijisakin. "{Re-Inventing African Literature through Visual Arts}." Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences 10 (2019): 76-89. AbstractWebsite

Evidence abounds of the synergy that exists between literature and visual arts in Africa. Illustrations are known to have given more meaning to books, while the text plays the role of the storyteller, the illustration acts out the story or scene on the pages of the book. Illustrations also make readership very easy and appealing to children and the uneducated people in our local communities. In recent times however, studies have shown a sharp decline in the inclusion of very good, insightful and inspiring illustrations into African literary text. When included, it is often poor and limited to the cover page of the book. This paper examines the merits derivable from the inclusion of visual arts into African literature as well as the reason for its decline with a view to suggesting how it can be used to reinvent African literature. It is expected that by so doing, publishers and authors will see the need and importance of using more illustrations in their books. This will, in turn, generate more interest in the culture of reading among the youths o

2018
Fọlárànmí, Stephen. "{This Is Our Story: Iconography of Carved Doors and Panels in Òyó Palace}." African Arts 51 (2018): 44-57. AbstractWebsite
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Fọlárànmí, Stephen Adéyemí, and Babasehinde A. Ademuleya. "Palace Courtyards in Ilésà: A Melting Point of Traditional Yorùbá Architecture." Yoruba Studies Review 2, no. 2 (2018): 51-76. Abstract

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Ajiboye, Olusegun Jide, Stephen Adéyemí Fọlárànmí, and Nanashaitu Umoru-Oke. "{Orí (Head) as an Expression of Yorùbá Aesthetic Philosophy}." Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences 9, no. 4 (2018): 59-70. Abstractori_head_as_an_expression_of_yoruba_aesthetic_philosophy.pdf

Aesthetics was never a subject or a separate philosophy in the traditional philosophies of black Africa. This is however not a justification to conclude that it is nonexistent. Indeed, aesthetics is a day to day affair among Africans. There are criteria for aesthetic judgment among African societies which vary from one society to the other. The Yorùbá of Southwestern Nigeria are not different. This study sets out to examine how the Yorùbá make their aesthetic judgments and demonstrate their aesthetic philosophy in decorating their orí, which means head among the Yorùbá. The head receives special aesthetic attention because of its spiritual and biological importance. It is an expression of the practicalities of Yorùbá aesthetic values. Literature and field work has been of paramount aid to this study. The study uses photographs, works of art and visual illustrations to show the various ways the head is adorned and cared for among the Yoruba. It relied on Yoruba art and language as a tool of investigating the concept of ori and aesthetics. Yorùbá aesthetic values are practically demonstrable and deeply located in the Yorùbá societal, moral and ethical idealisms. It concludes that the spiritual importance of orí or its aesthetics has a connection which has been demonstratively established by the Yorùbá as epressed in the images and illustrations used in this paper.

Omolola, Feyisara Sunday, and Stephen Folárànmí. "{An Analysis of Rhythm and Yoruba Cultural Aspects in The Works of Kunle Filani}." Maiduguri Journal of Arts and Design (MAIDJAD) 3 (2018). Abstract

Traditional Yoruba artistic heritage has a rich repertoire of motifs, forms, and colour with deep symbolic meanings often used in communicating thoughts and ideas. In modern Nigerian art, a recourse to cultural iconography has always influenced artistic creation. This paper therefore examines the rhythmic organization of forms using the Yoruba cultural iconography which characterizes the works of Kunle Filani, whose works draws significantly on the philosophy of Yoruba tradition. Twelve paintings have been purposefully selected for evaluation and analysis using the simple random method and the formal analysis technique. Findings revealed that Filani uses motifs, signs and symbols creatively as visual similes and metaphors to communicate thoughts and ideas. Filani also uses his art to make positive statements which have generated curious public reactions. This paper concludes that cultural content and context can induce socio-cultural development and serve as veritable tool to preserve and advance the cultural heritage of the Yoruba people as evident in Filani's work.

Fọlárànmí, Stephen A., Nanashaitu Umoru-Oke, and Idowu F. Adeyanju. "{Painting Our Stories and Legacies: Historical Evidences through Nigerian Paintings}." International Journal of Humanities and Cultural Studies (IJHCS) 5 (2018): 76-98. Abstract

One of the functions art serves is to visually document history for generations to come. Even with the development of writing, the artists have continued to document various aspects of what they encounter in their various communities. In Nigeria with particular reference to painting, several artists have used their paintings as visual documentaries. The introduction of the camera as a tool for documenting did little to dissuade these painters from continuing this role. This paper therefore examined selected paintings of artists in Nigeria, whose works reveal historical evidences and culture of a people. Paintings cutting across the various genres such as portraits, landscapes scenes, architecture, festivals and cultural issues from pre-independence Nigeria to the present were selected for examination and analysis. The paper explores a descriptive and comparative analysis of the selected paintings vis-à-vis the various subjects they have recorded. It concludes that these paintings show significant historical evidences that can be used to reconstruct history and others aspects of the society where the need may arise. Painters in Nigeria more than other artists have been able to record history with their works because of the pictorial and compositional peculiarity o

Fọlárànmí, Stephen Adéyemí. "{The Challenges and the Development of Style in Nigerian Art}." European Journal of Business and Management 10 (2018): 90-97. AbstractWebsite

The development of artistic styles in the Nigerian art scene has developed almost along the same line as in other places worldwide, while the challenges facing the artist are almost the same everywhere. This may be so because these challenges are fundamental. The quest for identity, change, statement of purpose, sense of belonging, problem solving, and in some cases revolt, outright breaking of established art laws and most importantly personal experience are some of the influences and basis on which the creating or the development of styles in Nigeria rests upon. Some the styles and expression are new, while others are further developments, synthesis, or combinations from existing styles and techniques available in the different field of fine and applied arts. We are familiar with styles, which are trademarks of established and successful artists in our society; styles, which are a development of different art schools in Nigeria and in recent years the ones that are evolving among talented and creative young Nigerian artists. The later is what this paper seeks to examine. What are the challenges, Inspiration, and the motivation and most importantly influences behind these new innovations?

2017
Amole, Bayo, and Stephen Folaranmi. "{Architecture: Indigenous}." In Culture and Customs of the Yoruba, edited by Toyin Falola and Akintunde Akinyemi, 171-189. Austin, Texas: Pan-African University Press, 2017. Abstract

Introduction The Yorùbá people of South-Western Nigeria and the Republic of Benin, (see fig. 1. Extent of area covered by the Yoruba in West Africa) together with many countless descendants in other parts of Africa, the Americas and beyond have made remarkable contributions to world civilisation in many ways. In the arts, they possess one of the oldest and finest traditions in Africa, a tradition that still remains vital and influential today. The Yorùbá are well known especially for their wooden sculptures which are mainly used as door panels, veranda posts, pillars, and stools in their buildings. They also carve thousands of figurative sculptures which are either used for religious or utilitarian purposes. Aside from their art in wood, they are excellent workers of metal, casters of Brass and Bronze, calabash carvings, bead works, and traditional wall decoration. All these numerous creative endeavours are executed either along with, or in support of Yorùbá indigenous architecture, which is relatively permanent in structure. Therefore it is clear that our understanding of the Yorùbá people will never be complete without a full investigation of the physical environment in which the people live, work, and play. Indeed Yorùbá architecture is a rich context from which to draw a study of Yorùbá culture. The Yorùbá are known to be city dwellers, the make-up of their houses points to the fact that for thousands of years they have occupied large towns, which are different from their farm settlements called abà. The tropical regions and semi-rainforest savannah in which they are located is also highly suitable for various forms of agricultural practice and development. Thus they cultivate food crops like maize, yam, cassava, beans and vegetable materials as well as tree crops like cocoa, palm trees, cola nuts, and cashews, to mention a few. While farmers are on the farm attending to crops, the hunters are in the deep forest, hunting for wild game. The presence of several different food strategies portrays the Yorùbá as a self-sufficient group before their contact with the outside world especially Europeans. As a result, it allows them to be more stable in order to construct more permanent structures for private, public and religious purposes. The Yorùbá population, for reasons of self-defence, sheer gregariousness, or both is predominantly urban. This is unlike various other ethnic groups that surround the Yorùbá. Even the farmers have their houses in the town and look upon their farms, which are in many cases situated at great distances from town, merely as places of work and temporary residences 3 . A typical Yorùbá village consists of a number of family compounds along with structures that serve the larger community. Each family compound may have separate structures for cooking, eating, sleeping, storing food (granary), and protecting animals at night. Structures may be round, rectangular, or semi-circular in shape. Communal structures, for holding meetings and teaching children, are located in a prominent place within the village. Known for their highly organized traditional and social groupings; the Yorùbá had a well ordered socio-political set up both at their urban and rural dwelling places long before colonization and contact with the outside world. Their houses are thus designed along this pattern especially with the compound being the focus of family life. In the past, the average Yorùbá family comprised the man, who is the head of the house or compound, his wife or wives depending on how prosperous he is, and their children. The house or compound becomes more enlarged and homogenous when his male children start getting married. These sons usually occupy another building within the same clan compound, thus

2016
Fọlárànmí, Stephen. {Kings and Chronologies} In Encyclopedia of The Yoruba, Edited by Toyin Falola and Akintunde Akinyemi. Indiana University Press, 2016. Abstract
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2015
Fọlárànmí, {Stephen Adéyemí. "A Model for Animation of Yorùbá Folktale Narratives." African Journal of Computing & ICT (2015). Abstract
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Folárànmí, Stephen, and Oyèníyì Oyèwolé. "{Changing the face of the built environment through murals: The Ile-Ife example}." In Responsive Built Environment, Issues, Strategies and Policies in the Developing World., edited by Henry Odeyinka, Bioye Aluko, Oludolapo Amole, Babasehinde Ademuleya and Ile-Ife} Nigeria.) {Daramola, Oluwole(Ọbáfémi Awólọ́wọ̀ University, 47-56. Ile-Ife: Faculty of Environmental Designs and management Obafemi Awolowo University,, 2015. Abstract

Art is known to be an agent of value and aesthetic in the built environment wherever such forms of art are employed, especially in societies where they are appreciated and enjoyed. Murals as a form of public art particularly have taken up a form by creating a symbiotic relationship with the spaces and walls within cities, towns and private homes. The lack of appreciation of this art form in the Nigerian environment and its non-inclusiveness in the past has devoid this art of its value. The paper discusses the recent murals in Ile-Ife especially on the walls of Obáfémi Awólówò University campus with a view to determining their social and environmental relevance in the built up spaces. It adopts structured interview to collect data from users of public spaces. The study population comprised of students, staff and other public space users in the study area. A descriptive approach was used in analyzing the murals based on form and subject matter as it relates to the public space. Findings revealed that public space users are receptive to the new murals and view them as a positive development. Results also showed that more spaces should be made available for use of posters as well as for art. The study concluded that the recent murals have added more value and aesthetic appeal to the spaces in which they are painted, thereby receiving positive responses from users of public spaces. It suggested that a policy should be enacted to incorporate creation of art as part of the budget in the design and construction of public spaces.

Folárànmí, Stephen, and Jonathan Imafidor. "{The Stained-Glass of Selected Churches in Ibadan}." In Responsive Built Environment, Issues, Strategies and Policies in the Developing World., edited by Henry Odeyinka, Bioye Aluko, Oludolapo Amole, Babasehinde Ademuleya and Ile-Ife} Nigeria.) {Daramola, Oluwole(Ọbáfémi Awólọ́wọ̀ University, 97-107. Ile-Ife: Faculty of Environmental Designs and management Obafemi Awolowo University,, 2015. Abstract

Art has always been and is still being used as a veritable tool in the hands of artists in promoting the Christian religion. Sculptures, mosaics, murals and stained-glass are some of the artistic media used to augment the aesthetic appeal of church architecture and most importantly earn the Christian faithful better concentration. However, the quest for larger spaces to accommodate the growing population of Christian converts and recent development in the built environment led to the demolition/renovation of existing structures and as a result churches give little or no room for the survival of some artworks. Artworks such as murals and stained-glass which are directly executed or fitted permanently on walls are usually affected as a result of these developments. This paper identified and analyzed the existing stained-glass in selected churches in Ibadan with a view to establishing their functions and relevance in the public spaces. The study adopted art historical methodology by using direct observatory and descriptive analysis. Interviews were conducted with key informants in the study area. Findings revealed that most churches with stained-glasses in the study area are old churches belonging to the Catholic, Methodist and Anglican denominations, and that many new churches no longer incorporate stained-glass in their churches, thereby depriving the built environment of this artistic form. It recommends that some of these churches be designated as tourist sites and be preserved for the good of the built environment as it is practiced in developed nations of the world.

2013
Folaranmi, Stephen, and Olusegun Jide Ajiboye. "{From Shrine Walls to Modern Walls: Murals in Ile-Ife.}." The Nigerian Field 78 (2013): 24-51. Abstract
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2012
Folaranmi, Stephen, and Olusegun Ajiboye. {Man with Nature III}. III ed. Vol. 3. Ile-Ife: Department of Fine and Applied Arts, OAU Ife, 2012. Abstract
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2010
Okome, Mojubaolu Olufunke, Stephen Adeyemi Folaranmi, and Gbolade Omidiran. "Africa Happening! Bits and Pieces." {SSRN} Electronic Journal (2010). AbstractWebsite
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2009
Folárànmí, Stephen. "{Art in the Service of Sango}." In Sango in Africa and the African Diaspora, edited by Joel Tishken, Toyin Falola and Akintunde Akinyemi, 157-186. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 2009. Abstract
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Folaranmi, Stephen. {Unity {&} Identity in Diversity}. Vechta: University of Vechta, Germany, 2009. Abstract
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2008
Folárànmí, Stephen. "{A Critique of Artistic Illustrations in the Works of Akinwumi Isola}." In Emerging Perspectives on AkinwumiIsola, edited by Akintunde Akínyémí and Toyin Falola. Trenton, New Jersey: African World Press, Inc, 2008. Abstract
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2006
Folárànmí, Stephen, and Olabisi Oparinde. "{Contemporary Mosaic Murals in Nigeria: The Worksof Elise Johnston}." In Contemporary Issues in Nigerian Arts, its History and Education, edited by P. S. O. Aremu, Babasehinde Ademuleya, Olusegun Ajiboye and Ebenezer Sheba, 358-373. Ile-Ife: Department of Fine Arts, Ọbáfémi Awólọ́wọ̀ University, 2006. Abstract

Among the artistic media related to painting, mosaic is one of the most specialized, technically demanding and also most involved in terms of materials. Its decorative qualities on large surfaces and durability make mosaic particularly suitable for monumental purposes. Basically, this essay takes a look at a particular mosaic artist-Elise Johnston, her contributions to the architectural beauty in modern Nigeria, techniques, inspiration and her works. It will also look at the importance and function of mosaic decoration, its necessity in the design, form and overall aesthetics of our built-up environment, as well as suggesting means by which traditional mural decoration could be preserved by using mosaics. During the Byzantine Era, the art of mosaic reached its highest level of quality. Artists decorated floors, walls, vaults and facades of temples and palaces. They used pieces of marble, natural stones, coloured glass, even gold and silver. Themes were inspired by ancient myths, decorative elements from sea and earth, scenes of hunting, faces, emperors, and most of all themes inspired by the Christian religion that was dominant during this period. The usage of mosaic in modern Nigerian architecture is not very new, more so in global village such as we live today, where buildings are much similar in design between Lagos, Paris and Moscow. The use of materials is also very similar except in cases where weather conditions are considered. One of the factors that would definitely make a difference between buildings in Lagos and London will be the mosaic decorations richly embedded with traditional forms and motifs.