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Heng, LY, Usup G, Ahmad A, Dada AC.  2012.  Speciation and antimicrobial resistance of Enterococci isolated from recreational beaches in Malaysia, May 18. Environ Monit Assess. AbstractWebsite

We report the first study on the occurrence of antibiotic-resistant enterococci in coastal bathing waters in Malaysia. One hundred and sixty-five enterococci isolates recovered from two popular recreational beaches in Malaysia were speciated and screened for antibiotic resistance to a total of eight antibiotics. Prevalence of Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium was highest in both beaches. E. faecalis/E. faecium ratio was 0.384:1 and 0.375:1, respectively, for isolates from Port Dickson (PD) and Bagan Lalang (BL). Analysis of Fisher's exact test showed that association of prevalence of E. faecalis and E. faecium with considered locations was not statistically significant (p < 0.05). Chi-square test revealed significant differences (chi (2) = 82.630, df = 20, p < 0.001) in the frequency of occurrence of enterococci isolates from the considered sites. Resistance was highest to nalidixic acid (94.84 %) and least for chloramphenicol (8.38 %). One-way ANOVA using Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison test showed that resistance to ampicillin was higher in PD beach isolates than BL isolates and the difference was extremely statistically significant (p < 0.0001). Frequency of occurrence of multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) isolates were higher for PD beach water (64.29 %) as compared to BL beach water (13.51 %), while MAR indices ranged between 0.198 and 0.48. The results suggest that samples from Port Dickson may contain MAR bacteria and that this could be due to high-risk faecal contamination from sewage discharge pipes that drain into the sea water.

Deborah, BO, Heng LY, Gires U, Asmat A, Dada AC.  2012.  Bacteriological monitoring and sustainable management of beach water quality in malaysia: problems and prospects, May. Glob J Health Sci. 4:126-38., Number 3 AbstractWebsite

Despite the growing demand of tourism in Malaysia, there are no resolute efforts to develop beaches as tourist destinations. With no incentives to monitor public beaches or to use them in a sustainable manner, they might eventually degenerate in quality as a result of influx of pollutants. This calls for concerted action plans with a view to promoting their sustainable use. The success of such plans is inevitably anchored on the availability of robust quality monitoring schemes. Although significant efforts have been channelled to collation and public disclosure of bacteriological quality data of rivers, beach water monitoring appears left out. This partly explains the dearth of published information related to beach water quality data. As part of an on-going nation-wide surveillance study on the bacteriological quality of recreational beaches, this paper draws on a situation analysis with a view to proffering recommendations that could be adapted for ensuring better beach water quality in Malaysia.

Heng, LY, Usup G, Ahmad A, Dada AC.  2012.  Virulence characteristics and antibiotic resistance among Enterococci isolated from Bagan Lalang beach, Malaysia, Jun. International Journal of Infectious Diseases. 16:E412-E412. AbstractWebsite
Arawomo, GAO, Dada AC, Awotoye OO.  2011.  Impact of Palm Oil Processing Effluent Discharge on the Quality of Receiving Soil and River in South Western Nigeria. Journal of Applied Sciences Research. 7:111-118., Number 2 Abstract
Dada, AC.  2011.  Packaged water: optimizing local processes for sustainable water delivery in developing nations. Global Health. 7:24. AbstractWebsite

ABSTRACT: With so much global attention and commitment towards making the Water and Sanitation targets of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) a reality, available figures seem to speak on the contrary as they reveal a large disparity between the expected and what currently obtains especially in developing countries. As studies have shown that the standard industrialized world model for delivery of safe drinking water technology may not be affordable in much of the developing world, packaged water is suggested as a low cost, readily available alternative water provision that could help bridge the gap. Despite the established roles that this drinking water source plays in developing nations, its importance is however significantly underestimated, and the source considered unimproved going by 'international standards'. Rather than simply disqualifying water from this source, focus should be on identifying means of improvement. The need for intervening global communities and developmental organizations to learn from and build on the local processes that already operate in the developing world is also emphasized. Identifying packaged water case studies of some developing nations, the implication of a tenacious focus on imported policies, standards and regulatory approaches on drinking water access for residents of the developing world is also discussed.

Ojo, MA, Ogunbanjo OR, Dada AC, Odeyemi AT.  2010.  Bacteriological, physicochemical and mineral studies on Awedele spring water and soil samples in Ado Ekiti, Nigeria. African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology. 4, Number 6 Abstract
Oluwadare, E, Ojo AM, Dada AC, Oluyege AO.  2009.  Antibiotic resistance profile of bacterial isolates from food sold on a University campus in south western Nigeria, Nov 2. African Journal of Biotechnology. 8:5883-5887., Number 21 AbstractWebsite

The antibiotic resistance profile of bacterial isolates from cooked food samples sold in different eateries on the campus of the University of Ado-Ekiti was investigated. A total of seventy-eight bacterial isolates belonging to six genera were encountered in the following proportion: Escherichia coli (29.5%), Klebsiella spp. (25.6%), Proteus spp. (18.0%), Salmonella spp. (12.8%), Pseudomonas spp. (11.5%) and Enterobacter spp. (2.5%). The antibiotic resistance pattern of the isolates revealed that resistance to six out of the eight antibiotic tested was above 50%. Nalidixic acid was the only antibiotic with a resistance rate below this range. Resistance to amoxicillin was the highest (89.1%), followed by augmentin (76.9%) and gentamycin (71.8%). The results suggest the need for intensive surveillance of isolates throughout food production continuum to prevent food-borne infections and also to detect emerging antimicrobial resistance phenotypes.

Dada, AC.  2009.  Sachet water phenomenon in Nigeria: Assessment of the potential health impacts, Jan. African Journal of Microbiology Research. 3:15-21., Number 1 AbstractWebsite

Many years of neglect by government and inadequate investment in public infrastructure has left the public drinking water supply in Nigeria in an unreliable state. The society has therefore taken to several adaptive measures of alleviating this stress. One of these is dependence on sachet water, popularly referred to as 'pure water'. Although easy to serve and the price is affordable, complaints abound on its purity and other health concerns. A gradual nationwide ban was proposed by the national regulator for this packaged water but the market still witnesses tremendous growth, especially among the poor. To determine the bacteriological quality of drinking water sold in sachets in Lagos, Nigeria, one hundred samples of high- and low-demand sachet waters obtained from vendors at hot-spot locations were assessed using the multiple tube fermentation method. Based on the zero tolerance standards stipulated by the regulator, a 22% non-compliance level was recorded. Recommendations that may contribute to a policy that would allow for an integrated and holistic approach in managing the sachet water industry are discussed. The need for support of such local initiatives, especially in the drive towards achieving the much publicised Millennium Development Goals for universal water access, is also highlighted.

Odeyemi, AT, Dada AC, Oluyege JO.  2009.  Incidence of multiple antibiotic resistant Gram-negative bacteria isolated from surface and underground water sources in south western region of Nigeria. Water Sci Technol. 59:1929-36., Number 10 AbstractWebsite

In most rural and urban settlements, particularly in Nigeria, wells, spring, streams or rivers and lakes serves as major sources of water supply for drinking and other domestic purposes. Unfortunately, many of the available water sources are not potable without some form of treatment which is seldom available in most settings. The use of untreated surface water sources for drinking and for domestic purposes remains a major threat to public health as these could serve as reservoirs the for transfer of antibiotic resistant pathogens. The incidence of resistant bacteria isolated from surface and underground water in six rural settlements in Ekiti State Nigeria was thus investigated. Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from wells, streams and boreholes in six rural settlements in Ekiti State Nigeria between January and April, 2006 and the prevalence of organisms exhibiting multiple antibiotic resistance to tetracycline, amoxicillin, cotrimoxazole, nitofurantoin, gentamicin, nalidixic acid and ofloxacin was observed. Gram-negative bacterial isolates comprised Escherichia coli (22.7%), Enterobacter aerogenes (2.5%), Salmonella spp. (13.3%), Shigella spp. (19.3%), Proteus spp. (18.5%), Klebsiella spp. (19.3%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (4.2%). Over 10% of the bacteria were resistant to four or more antibiotic. Antibiotic resistance was highest in members of the genera Enterobacter, Pseudomonas, and Proteus. Given the prevalence of appalling sanitary facilities and inappropriate public antibiotic use, the possibility of antibiotic resistance selection, faecal dissemination and subsequent contamination of local water sources available for rural residents of the developing world is highlighted. The implication for clinical practice of infections caused by antibiotic resistant strains especially among immunodeficient individuals is also discussed.

Dada, AC.  2009.  Towards a successful packaged water regulation in Nigeria. Scientific Research and Essay. 4:921-928., Number 9 Abstract